Improvisation |
Music Terms

Improvisation |

Dictionary categories
terms and concepts

Improvisation (French improvisation, ital. improvisation, от лат. improvisus – unexpected, sudden) – a special kind of art found in a number of arts (poetry, drama, music, choreography). creativity, with K-rum production. created directly in the process of its execution. Music. AND. known from ancient times. The oral character of Nar. creativity – the transfer of songs and instr. tunes by ear, from memory – contributed to the use of Nar. musicians (singers and instrumentalists) of the elements of I. In my practice I. they relied on the forms of muses developed by the people. thinking, to a well-established circle of intonations, chants, rhythms, etc. n For birth musicians are characterized by the desire to unite a clear fixation of the once found muses. image with its free variation, achieving constant renewal and enrichment of music. In music. Eastern cultures. peoples improvisation. variation of a certain melodic model is DOS. form of music. Through wandering people. musicians I. entered the mountains. ice culture. In Europe prof. music I. is gaining ground in century – originally in wok. cult music. Since the forms of its recording were approximate, incomplete (neumes, hooks), the performer was forced, to one degree or another, to resort to improvisation (the so-called. anniversaries, etc.). Over time, the methods became more and more defined and regulated. High art. level of claim I. reaches in secular muses. genres in the Renaissance; it receives a manifold refraction in music. practice of the 16th-18th centuries, both in composing and performing arts. With the development of instr. solo music, especially for keyboard instruments, the scale of I. – before creation in the form of I. whole muses. plays. A musician, who often combined a composer and a performer in one person, in order to master the art of I. had to go through a special preparation. Meryl prof. musician qualifications, eg. organist, for a long time his skill in the so-called. free I. (often on a given topic) polyphonic. ice forms (preludes, fugues, etc.). The first famous master I. was an organist and composer of the 15th century. F. Landino. From the end of the 16th century, with the approval of homophonic harmonic. warehouse (melody with accompaniment), the system of the so-called. general-bass, which provided for the performance of accompaniment to the melody according to a digital bass tholos. Although the performer had to adhere to certain rules of voice leading, such a decoding of the general bass included elements of I. Possession of a general bass in the 17th-18th centuries was considered mandatory for a performing musician. In the 16-18 centuries. tricks were distributed. AND. – coloring (decoration) by performers instr. pieces (for lute, clavier, violin, etc.), wok. parties. They found especially wide application in the coloratura parts of Italian. operas 18 – early. 19 cc (cm. Coloratura, Roulade, Fioritura). The rules of this kind I., one of the arts. manifestations of a swarm is the art of ornamentation, set out in many others. ancient music.-theoretical. treatises, voc. and instr. schools. However, the abuse of such techniques, which turned such an I. into an outwardly virtuoso decorative art, led to its degeneration. Music deepening. content, the complication of its forms in the 18-19 centuries. demanded from composers a more complete and accurate recording of the muses. the text of the work, eliminating the arbitrariness of the performers. Since the end of 18 in. performing I. in different its manifestations (based on the general bass, coloring, etc.) begins to give way to the exact transfer of musical notation by the performer, lays the foundation for the crystallization of the interpretation art. However, in the 1st floor. 19 in. such forms of I. as free fantasizing, as well as I. on a given topic, which has established itself as a special. (usually final) numbers in conc. programs of instrumental virtuosos. Outstanding improvisers were the largest composers of that time (L. Beethoven, F. Schubert, N. Paganini, F. List, F. Chopin). General interest I. especially characteristic of the Romantic era. Free fantasy was an integral part of the performance. the skill of the romantic artist, the need for it was justified by the romantic. ice

Late value And. decreases. Performed I. continues to be retained by opera singers (in arias); its features (in the form of nuances of interpretation in the process of performance itself) appear during the performance of the product. by heart (a form of conc. performances by soloists, which became common from the 2nd half of the 19th century), reading notes from a sheet. Free I. instrumentalists are preserved in the cadences of instr. concerts (for a short time; already Beethoven in his 5th piano concerto himself writes out a cadenza), with organists (S. Frank, A. Bruckner, M. Dupre, etc.). I. choral processing and fugue and still remains the touchstone of prof. the skill of the organist. In modern music practice I. does not play creatures. roles, keeping the value only in creativity. act of the composer, as will prepare. stage of the formation of music. images and how the element will perform. interpretation. The exception is jazz music, which has organic elements of collective jazz (see Jazz). In the 20th century with the advent of cinema, I. found application in music. illustrations of “silent” films (accompanying the film by playing on the fp.). Some music. E. Jacques-Dalcroze, F. Jode, and C. Orff are using music as a means of musical education for children and youth. Since the 1950s arbitrary I. finds application in avant-garde art (see Aleatorica), in the works of K. Stockhausen, P. Boulez, and others, the recording of which gives the performer only a few guidelines for the free implementation of the author’s intention or provides him with his own. discretion, in the process of performance, to vary the form of compositions. Some music. genres bear names that indicate their partial connection with I. (for example, “Fantasy”, “Prelude”, “Improvisation”).

References: Wehle GF, The Art of Improvisation, Vols. 1-3, Munster in W., 1925-32; Fischer M., The organistic improvisation in the 17th century, Kassel, 1929 («Kцnigsberger Studies on Musicology», V); Jцde Fr., The creative child in music, в кн.: Handbook of music education, ed. by E. Bucken, Potsdam, 1931; Fellerer KG, On the history of free improvisation. “Die Musikpflege”, volume II, 1932; Fritsch M., Variation and Improvisation, Kassel, 1941; Wolf H. Chr., The singing improvisations of the baroque period, congress report, Bamberg, 1953; Ferand ET, Die Improvisation, Cologne, 1956, 1961; Lцw HA, Improvisation in the piano works of L. van Beethoven, Saarbrücken, 1962 (diss.).

I. M. Yampolsky

Leave a Reply