Stroke |
Music Terms

Stroke |

Dictionary categories
terms and concepts

Hatch (German Strich – a line, a stroke; Stricharten – strokes, types of strokes; Bogenstrich – the movement of the bow along the string) – an expressive element of the instr. technique, method of performance (and the nature of the sound that depends on it). Main types of Sh. were determined in the practice of playing the strings. bowed instruments (primarily on the violin), and their principles and names were later transferred to other types of performance. Sh. as the nature of sound delivery, associated with the type of movement of the bow, must be distinguished from the method of sound production, for example. the concept of Sh. does not include harmonics, pizzicato and col legno on bowed strings. Sh. is the principle of “pronunciation” of sounds on the instrument, and, therefore, sh. should be considered as a phenomenon of articulation. Sh.’s choice is determined by stylistic. features of the music performed, its figurative character, as well as interpretation. There are different points of view on the classification of Sh.; it seems appropriate to divide them into 2 groups: S. separate (French dйtachй, from dйtacher – to separate) and S. connected (Ital. legato – connected, smoothly, from legare – to connect). Ch. a sign of separate Sh. – each sound is performed separately. bow movement; these include large and small détaché, martelé, spiccato, sautillé. Ch. a sign of connected sounds is the union of two or more sounds with one movement of the bow; these include legato, portamento or portato (weighted legato, French lourй), ​​staccato, ricochet. Sh. can be combined. A similar classification of sh is applicable to performance on wind instruments. Legato defines a cantilena performance with varying degrees of sound density; dйtachй serves to designate sounds, each of which is obtained with the help of otd. blow (attack) of the tongue. Specific for some wind instruments (flute, horn, trumpet) Sh. – double and triple staccato, resulting from the alternation of a tongue strike and aspiration (the performer pronounces the syllables “ta-ka” or “ta-ta-ka”). Sh. on plucked instruments are very diverse and are associated with different ways of attacking the string with fingers or a plectrum. In the concept of Sh., dec. are also combined. techniques for playing percussion, keyboard instruments (legato, staccato, martel, etc.).

References: Stepanov B. A., Basic principles of the practical application of bow strokes, D., 1960; Braudo I. A., Articulation, L., 1961, M., 1973; Redotov A.L., Methods of teaching to play wind instruments, M., 1975; see also lit. at Art. Articulation.

T. A. Repchanskaya, V. P. Frayonov

Leave a Reply