Program music |
Music Terms

Program music |

Dictionary categories
terms and concepts, trends in art

German Programmusik, French musique a program, ital. musica a programma program music

Musical works that have a certain verbal, often poetic. program and revealing the content imprinted in it. The phenomenon of music programming is associated with specific. features of music that distinguish it from others. claim-in. In the field of displaying feelings, moods, and spiritual life of a person, music has important advantages over others. claim by you. Indirectly, through feelings and moods, music is able to reflect many. phenomena of reality. However, it is not able to accurately designate what exactly causes this or that feeling in a person, it is not able to achieve the objective, conceptual concreteness of the display. The possibilities of such concretization are possessed by speech language and literature. Striving for substantive, conceptual concretization, composers create program music. production; prescribing op. program, they force the means of speech language, arts. lit-ry act in unity, in synthesis with the actual muses. means. The unity of music and literature is also facilitated by the fact that they are temporary arts, capable of showing the growth and development of the image. Atonement diff. the lawsuit has been going on for a long time. In ancient times, there were no independent entities at all. types of lawsuits – they acted together, in unity, the lawsuit was syncretic; at the same time it was closely connected with labor activity and with decomp. kind of rituals, rituals. At that time, each of the lawsuits was so limited in terms of funds that it was out of syncretic. unity aimed at solving applied problems could not exist. The subsequent allocation of claims was determined not only by a change in the way of life, but also by the growth of the possibilities of each of them, achieved within the syncretic. unity associated with this growth of aesthetic. human feelings. At the same time, the unity of art never ceased, including the unity of music with the word, poetry – primarily in all kinds of woks. and wok.-dramatic. genres. In the beginning. In the 19th century, after a long period of existence of music and poetry as independent arts, the tendency towards their unity intensified even more. This was determined no longer by their weakness, but rather by their strength, by pushing their own to the limit. of opportunities. Further enrichment of the reflection of reality in all its diversity, in all its aspects could be achieved only by the joint action of music and words. And programming is one of the types of unity of music and the means of speech language, as well as literature, denoting or displaying those sides of a single object of reflection, which music is not able to convey by its own means. T. o., an integral element of the program music. prod. is a verbal program created or chosen by the composer himself, whether it is a short program heading indicating a phenomenon of reality, which the composer had in mind (the play “Morning” by E. Grieg from music to the drama by G. Ibsen “Peer Gynt”), sometimes “referring” the listener to a certain lit. prod. (“Macbeth” R. Strauss — symphony. poem “based on Shakespeare’s drama”), or a lengthy excerpt from a literary work, a detailed program compiled by the composer according to one or another lit. prod. (symf. suite (2nd symphony) “Antar” by Rimsky-Korsakov based on the fairy tale of the same name by O. AND. Senkovsky) or out of touch with Ph.D. lit.

Not every title, not every explanation of music can be considered as its program. The program can only come from the author of the music. If he did not tell the program, then his very idea was non-program. If he first gave his Op. program, and then abandoned it, so he translated his Op. into the non-program category. The program is not an explanation of music, it complements it, revealing something that is missing in music, inaccessible to the embodiment of muses. means (otherwise it would be redundant). In this, it fundamentally differs from any analysis of the music of a non-program op., any description of its music, even the most poetic, incl. and from the description belonging to the author of Op. and pointing to specific phenomena, to-rye caused in his creativity. consciousness of certain muses. images. And vice versa – program op. is not a “translation” of the program itself into the language of music, but a reflection of the muses. means of the same object, which is designated, reflected in the program. The headings given by the author himself are not a program either, if they denote not specific phenomena of reality, but concepts of an emotional plane, which the music conveys much more accurately (for example, headings like “Sadness”, etc.). It happens that the program attached to the product. by the author himself, is not in organic. unity with music, but this is already determined by the arts. the skill of the composer, sometimes also by how well he compiled or selected the verbal program. This has nothing to do with the question of the essence of the phenomenon of programming.

Muses himself possesses certain means of concretization. language. Among them are the Muses. figurativeness (see sound painting) – a reflection of various kinds of sounds of reality, associative representations generated by music. sounds – their height, duration, timbre. An important means of concretization is also the attraction of the features of “applied” genres – dance, march in all its varieties, etc. National-characteristic features of muses can also serve as concretizations. language, music style. All these means of concretization make it possible to express the general concept of Op. (for example, the triumph of light forces over dark ones, etc.). And yet they do not provide that substantive, conceptual concretization, which is provided by the verbal program. Moreover, the more widely used in music. prod. music proper. means of concretization, the more necessary for the full perception of music are the words, the program.

One type of programming is picture programming. It includes works that display one image or a complex of images of reality that does not undergo beings. changes throughout its duration. These are pictures of nature (landscapes), pictures of bunks. festivities, dances, battles, etc., music. images objects of inanimate nature, as well as portrait muses. sketches.

The second main type of music programming – plot programming. Source of plots for software products. of this kind serves primarily as art. lit. In the plot-program music. prod. music development. images in general or in particular corresponds to the development of the plot. Distinguish between generalized-plot programming and sequential-plot programming. The author of a work relating to the generalized plot type of programming and connected through the program with one or another lit. production, does not aim to show the events depicted in it in all their sequence and complexity, but gives muses. characteristic of the main images of lit. prod. and the general direction of the development of the plot, the initial and final correlation of the acting forces. On the contrary, the author of a work belonging to the serial-plot type of programming seeks to display intermediate stages in the development of events, sometimes the entire sequence of events. Appeal to this type of programming is dictated by plots, in which the middle stages of development, which do not proceed in a straight line, but are associated with the introduction of new characters, with a change in the setting of the action, with events that are not a direct consequence of the previous situation, become important. Appeal to sequential-plot programming also depends on creativity. composer settings. Different composers often translate the same plots in different ways. For example, the tragedy “Romeo and Juliet” by W. Shakespeare inspired P. I. Tchaikovsky to create a work. generalized plot type of programming (overture-fantasy “Romeo and Juliet”), G. Berlioz – to create a product. sequential-plot type of programming (dramatic symphony “Romeo and Juliet”, in which the author even goes beyond pure symphonism and attracts a vocal beginning).

In the field of music language cannot be distinguished. signs of P. м. This is also true for the form of software products. In works representing the pictorial type of programming, there are no prerequisites for the emergence of specific. structures. Tasks, to-rye set by the authors of software products. of a generalized plot type, are successfully performed by forms developed in non-program music, primarily the sonata allegro form. The authors of the program op. sequential plot type have to create muses. form, more or less “parallel” to the plot. But they build it by combining the elements of different. forms of non-program music, attracting some of the methods of development already widely represented in it. Among them is the variational method. It allows you to show changes that do not affect the essence of the phenomenon, concerning many others. important features, but associated with the preservation of a number of qualities, which makes it possible to recognize the image, in whatever new form it appears. The principle of monothematism is closely related to the variational method. Using this principle in terms of figurative transformation, so widely used by F. Liszt in his symphonic poems, etc. production, the composer gains greater freedom to follow the plot without the danger of disturbing the music. wholeness op. Another type of monothematism associated with the leitmotif characterization of the characters (see. Keynote), finds application Ch. arr. in serial-plot productions. Having originated in the opera, the leitmotif characteristic was also transferred to the area of ​​instr. music, where one of the first and most widely resorted to it was G. Berlioz. Its essence lies in the fact that one theme throughout the Op. acts as a characteristic of the same hero. She appears each time in a new context, denoting the new environment surrounding the hero. This theme can change itself, but changes in it do not change its “objective” meaning and reflect only changes in the state of the same hero, a change in ideas about him. The reception of the leitmotif characteristic is most appropriate in conditions of cyclicity, suiteness and turns out to be a powerful means of combining the contrasting parts of the cycle, revealing a single plot. It facilitates the embodiment in music of successive plot ideas and the unification of the features of sonata allegro and sonata-symphony in a single-movement form. cycle, characteristic of the created by F. A sheet of the symphonic genre. poems. Misc. the steps of an action are conveyed with the help of relatively independent ones. episodes, the contrast between which corresponds to the contrast of parts of the sonata-symphony. cycle, then these episodes are “brought to unity” in a compressed reprise, and in accordance with the program, one or another of them is singled out. From the point of view of the cycle, the reprise usually corresponds to the finale, from the point of view of the sonata allegro, the 1st and 2nd episodes correspond to the exposition, the 3rd (“scherzo” in the cycle) corresponds to the development. Liszt has the use of such synthetic. forms are often combined with the use of the principle of monothematism. All these techniques allowed composers to create music. forms that correspond to the individual features of the plot and at the same time organic and holistic. However, new synthetic the forms cannot be regarded as belonging to the program music alone. They arose not only in connection with the implementation of program ideas – the general trends of the era also affected their appearance.

There are program music. cit., in which as a program involved products. painting, sculpture, even architecture. Such are, for example, symphonic Liszt’s poems “The Battle of the Huns” based on the fresco by V. Kaulbach and “From the Cradle to the Grave” based on the drawing by M. Zichy, his own play “The Chapel of William Tell”; “Betrothal” (to the painting by Raphael), “The Thinker” (based on the statue of Michelangelo) from fp. cycles “Years of Wanderings”, etc. However, the possibilities of subject, conceptual concretization of these claims are not exhaustive. It is no coincidence that paintings and sculptures are supplied with a concretizing name, which can be considered as a kind of their program. Therefore, in music works written on the basis of various works depict, art, in essence, combine not only music and painting, music and sculpture, but music, painting and word, music, sculpture and word. And the functions of the program in them are performed by Ch. arr. not manufactured depict, claims, but a verbal program. This is determined primarily by the diversity of music as a temporary art-va and painting and sculpture as a static, “spatial” art. As for architectural images, they are generally unable to concretize music in terms of subject matter and concepts; music authors. works associated with architectural monuments, as a rule, were inspired not so much by themselves as by history, by the events that took place in them or near them, the legends that developed about them (the play “Vyshegrad” from the symphonic cycle of B. Smetana “ My Motherland”, the aforementioned piano play “The Chapel of William Tell” by Liszt, which the author not accidentally prefaced with the epigraph “One for all, all for one”).

Programming was a great conquest of the muses. lawsuit. She led to the enrichment of the range of images of reality, reflected in the muses. prod., the search for new expresses. means, new forms, contributed to the enrichment and differentiation of forms and genres. The composer’s approach to classical music is usually determined by his connection with life, modernity, and attention to topical problems; in other cases, it itself contributes to the composer’s rapprochement with reality and its deeper comprehension. However, in some ways P. m. is inferior to non-program music. The program narrows the perception of music, diverts attention from the general idea expressed in it. The embodiment of plot ideas is usually associated with music. characteristics that are more or less conventional. Hence the ambivalent attitude of many great composers towards programming, which both attracted them and repelled them (sayings by P. I. Tchaikovsky, G. Mahler, R. Strauss, etc.). P. m. is not a certain: the highest kind of music, just as non-program music is not. These are equal, equally legitimate varieties. The difference between them does not preclude their connection; both genera are also associated with the wok. music. So, the opera and the oratorio were the cradle of program symphonism. The opera overture was the prototype of the program symphony. poems; in operatic art, there are also the prerequisites for leitmotivism and monothematism, which are so widely used in P. m. In turn, non-programmed instr. the music is influenced by the wok. music and P. m. Found in P. m. new will express. possibilities become the property of non-program music as well. The general trends of the epoch affect the development of both classical music and non-program music.

The unity of music and program in the program Op. is not absolute, indissoluble. It happens that the program is not brought to the listener when performing op., that lit. product, to which the author of the music refers the listener, turns out to be unfamiliar to him. The more generalized form the composer chooses to embody his idea, the less damage to perception will be caused by such a “separation” of the music of the work from its program. Such a “separation” is always undesirable when it comes to the execution of modern. works. However, it may turn out to be natural when it comes to the performance of production. an earlier era, since program ideas may lose their relevance and significance over time. In these cases, the music prod. to a greater or lesser extent lose the features of programmability, turn into non-programmable ones. Thus, the line between P. m. and non-program music, in general, is completely clear, in the historical. aspect is conditional.

AP м. developed essentially throughout the history of prof. ice isk-va. The earliest of the reports found by researchers about software muses. Op. refers to 586 BC. – this year at the Pythian games in Delphi (Dr. Greece), the avletist Sakao performed a play by Timosthenes depicting the battle of Apollo with the dragon. Many program works was created in later times. Among them are the clavier sonatas “Bible Stories” by the Leipzig composer J. Kunau, harpsichord miniatures by F. Couperin and J. F. Rameau, clavier “Capriccio on the Departure of a Beloved Brother” by I. C. Bach. Programming is also presented in the works of the Viennese classics. Among their works: the triad of program symphonies by J. Haydn, characterizing dec. the times of the day (No 6, “Morning”; No 7, “Noon”; No 8, “Evening”), his Farewell Symphony; “Pastoral Symphony” (No 6) by Beethoven, all parts of which are provided with programmatic subtitles and on the score there is a note important for understanding the type of programmaticity of the author of Op. – “More expression of feelings than image”, his own play “The Battle of Vittoria”, originally intended for mechanical. ice panharmonicon instrument, but then performed in orc. editions, and especially his overture to the ballet “The Creations of Prometheus”, to the tragedy “Coriolanus” by Collin, the overture “Leonora” No. 1-3, the overture to the tragedy “Egmont” by Goethe. Written as introductions to dramas. or music-drama. production, they soon gained independence. Later program Op. were also often created as introductions to K.-L. lit. prod., losing over time, however, will enter. function. The true flowering of P. м. came in the era of music. romanticism. Compared with representatives of the classicist and even enlightenment aesthetics, romantic artists understood the specifics of decomp. claim-in. They saw that each of them reflects life in its own way, using means peculiar only to it and reflecting the same object, a phenomenon from a certain side accessible to it, which, consequently, each of them is somewhat limited and gives an incomplete picture of reality. This is what led the romantic artists to the idea of ​​synthesis of art in order to more complete, multilateral display of the world. Music. romantics proclaimed the slogan of the renewal of music through its connection with poetry, which was translated into many. ice prod. Program Op. occupy an important place in the work of F. Mendelssohn-Bartholdy (overture from music to Shakespeare’s “A Midsummer Night’s Dream”, overtures “Hebrides”, or “Fingal’s Cave”, “Sea Silence and Happy Swimming”, “Beautiful Melusina”, “Ruy Blas”, etc.), R . Schumann (overtures to Byron’s Manfred, to scenes from Goethe’s Faust, pl. fp. plays and cycles of plays, etc.). Especially important is P. м. buys from G. Berlioz (“Fantastic Symphony”, symphony “Harold in Italy”, drama. symphony “Romeo and Juliet”, “Funeral and Triumphal Symphony”, overtures “Waverley”, “Secret Judges”, “King Lear”, “Rob Roy”, etc.) and F. Liszt (symphony “Faust” and symphony to the “Divine Comedy” by Dante, 13 symphony. poems, pl. fp. plays and cycles of plays). Subsequently, an important contribution to the development of P. м. brought B. Cream (sym. poems “Richard III”, “Camp Wallenstein”, “Gakon Jarl”, cycle “My Motherland” of 6 poems), A. Dvořák (sym. poems “Waterman”, “Golden Spinning Wheel”, “Forest Dove”, etc., overtures – Hussite, “Othello”, etc.) and R. Strauss (symp. poems “Don Juan”, “Death and Enlightenment”, “Macbeth”, “Til Ulenspiegel”, “Thus Spoke Zarathustra”, fantastic. variations on the knightly theme “Don Quixote”, “Home Symphony”, etc.). Program Op. also created by K. Debussy (orc. prelude “Afternoon of a Faun”, symphony. cycles “Nocturnes”, “Sea”, etc.), M. Reger (4 symphony poems according to Böcklin), A. Onegger (symph. poem “Song of Nigamon”, symphony. movements “Pacific 231”, “Rugby”, etc.), P.

Programming has received rich development in Russian. music. For Russian nat. music schools appeal to software dictated aesthetic. the attitudes of its leading representatives, their desire for democracy, the general intelligibility of their works, as well as the “objective” nature of their work. From writings, osn. on song themes and, therefore, containing elements of the synthesis of music and words, since the listener, when perceiving them, correlates texts of correspondences with music. songs (“Kamarinskaya” by Glinka), Russian. composers soon came to the actual musical composition. A number of outstanding program op. created members of the “Mighty Handful” – M. A. Balakirev (symphonic poem “Tamara”), M. P. Mussorgsky (“Pictures at an Exhibition” for piano), N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov (symphonic painting “Sadko “, Symphony “Antar”). A large number of software products belongs to P. I. Tchaikovsky (1st symphony “Winter Dreams”, symphony “Manfred”, fantasy overture “Romeo and Juliet”, symphonic poem “Francesca da Rimini”, etc.). Vibrant software products A. K. Glazunov (symphonic poem “Stenka Razin”), A. K. Lyadov (symphonic paintings “Baba Yaga”, “Magic Lake” and “Kikimora”), Vas. S. Kalinnikov (symphonic painting “Cedar and Palm Tree”), S. V. Rachmaninov (symphonic fantasy “Cliff”, symphonic poem “Isle of the Dead”), A. N. Scriabin (symphonic “Poem of Ecstasy”, ” The Poem of Fire” (“Prometheus”), pl. fp. plays).

Programming is also widely represented in the work of owls. composers, incl. S. S. Prokofiev (“Scythian Suite” for orchestra, symphonic sketch “Autumn”, symphonic painting “Dreams”, piano pieces), N. Ya. Myaskovsky (symphonic poems “Silence” and “Alastor”, symphonies No 10, 12, 16, etc.), D. D. Shostakovich (symphonies No 2, 3 (“May Day”), 11 (“1905”), 12 (“1917”), etc.). Program Op. are also created by representatives of younger generations of owls. composers.

Programming is characteristic not only of professional, but also of Nar. music claim. Among the peoples, muses. cultures to-rykh include developed instr. music-making, it is associated not only with the performance and variation of song melodies, but also with the creation of compositions independent of song art, software. So, program op. make up a significant part of Kazakh. (Kui) and Kirg. (kyu) instr. plays. Each of these pieces, performed by a soloist-instrumentalist (among the Kazakhs – kuishi) on one of the bunks. instruments (dombra, kobyz or sybyzga among the Kazakhs, komuz, etc. among the Kyrgyz), has a program name; pl. of these plays have become traditional, like songs being passed on in different languages. variants from generation to generation.

An important contribution to the coverage of the phenomenon of programming was made by the composers themselves who worked in this area – F. Liszt, G. Berlioz and others. musicology not only did not advance in understanding the phenomenon of P. m., but rather moved away from it. It is significant, for example, that the authors of articles on P. m., placed in the largest Western European. music encyclopedias and should generalize the experience of studying the problem, give very vague definitions to the phenomenon of programming (see Grov’s Dictionary of music and musicians, v. 6, L.-NY, 1954; Riemann Musiklexikon, Sachteil, Mainz, 1967), sometimes even refuse c.-l. definitions (Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart. Allgemeine Enzyklopädie der Musik, Bd 10, Kassel ua, 1962).

In Russia, the study of the problem of programming began in the period of activity of the Rus. classical music schools, representatives of which left important statements on this issue. Attention to the problem of programming was especially intensified in Sov. time. In the 1950s on the pages of the magazine. “Soviet music” and gas. “Soviet Art” was special. discussion on music. software. This discussion also revealed differences in the understanding of the phenomenon of P. m. ) and for listeners, about the programmability of “conscious” and “unconscious”, about programmability in non-program music, etc. The essence of all these statements boils down to recognizing the possibility of P. m. without a program attached to Op. by the composer himself. Such a point of view inevitably leads to the identification of programmaticity with content, to the declaration of all music as programmatic, to the justification of “guessing” unannounced programs, i.e. arbitrary interpretation of the composer’s ideas, against which the composers themselves have always sharply opposed. In the 50-60s. Quite a few works have appeared that have made a definite contribution to the development of problems of programmability, in particular, to the area of ​​delimitation of the types of programming language. However, a unified understanding of the phenomenon of programmability has not yet been established.

References: Tchaikovsky P. I., Letters to HP von Meck of February 17 / March 1, 1878 and December 5/17, 1878, in the book: Tchaikovsky P. I., Correspondence with N.F. von Meck, vol. 1, M.-L., 1934, the same, Poln. coll. soch., vol. VII, M., 1961 p. 124-128, 513-514; his, O program music, M.-L., 1952; Cui Ts. A., Russian romance. Essay on its development, St. Petersburg, 1896, p. 5; Laroche, Something about program music, The World of Art, 1900, vol. 3, p. 87-98; his own, Translator’s Preface to Hanslik’s book “On the Musically Beautiful”, Collected. music critical articles, vol. 1, M., 1913, p. 334-61; his, One of Hanslick’s opponents, ibid., p. 362-85; Stasov V.V., Art in the 1901th century, in the book: 3th century, St. Petersburg, 1952, the same, in his book: Izbr. soch., vol. 1, M., 1917; Yastrebtsev V.V., My memories of N.A. Rimsky-Korsakov, vol. 1959, P., 95, L., 1951, p. 5; Shostakovich D., On genuine and imaginary programming, “SM”, 1953, No 1959; Bobrovsky V.P., Sonata form in Russian classical program music, M., 7 (abstract of diss.); Sabinina M., What is program music?, MF, 1962, No 1963; Aranovsky M., What is program music?, M., 1968; Tyulin Yu. N., About programmability in the works of Chopin, L., 1963, M., 1965; Khokhlov Yu., About musical programming, M., 11; Auerbach L., Considering the problems of programming, “SM”, XNUMX, No XNUMX. See also lit. under the articles Musical Aesthetics, Music, Sound Painting, Monothematism, Symphonic Poem.

Yu. N. Khokhlov

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