French mediante, from Late Lat. medians, genus. case mediantis – located in the middle, mediating
1) The designation of chords that are one third up or down from the tonic, i.e. III and VI degrees of the mode; in a narrower sense, M. (or upper M.) – naming. chord of the III degree (the VI degree in this case is called the submediant, or lower M.). Similar the corresponding sounds are also designated in this way – the III and VI degrees of the mode. harmonic the function of M. chords is determined primarily by their intermediate position between the main. chords: III – between I and V, VI – between I and IV. Hence the duality of the function of M. chords: III is a weakly expressed dominant, VI is a weakly expressed subdominant, while both III and VI can perform certain tonic functions. Hence also the expressive meaning of M. chords — the softness, the veiledness of their contrast to the tonic, the softness of the tertian shifts when combined with the tonic, subdominant, and dominant. In other connections (for example, VI-III, III-VI, VI-II, II-III, VI-III, etc.), M. harmonies make the dependence of chords on the tonic of the mode less noticeable, revealing their local (variables) ) functions, contributing to the formation of tonal variability (for example, in Prince Yuri’s arioso “Oh glory, vain wealth” from the opera “The Legend of the Invisible City of Kitezh and the Maiden Fevronia”).
In step harmonic. theory (G. Weber, 1817-21; P. I. Tchaikovsky, 1872; N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov, 1884-85) M. chords are among the seven diatonic. steps, although as side ones they are more or less separated from the main ones (I and V). In functional theory (X. Riemann), M. are interpreted as modifications of the “three only essential harmonies” – T, D and S: as their parallels (for example, in C-dur egh – Dp) or as consonances of the introductory shift (egh in C- dur can also be:
), depending on the real proportion of these chords in the context. According to G. Schenker, the meaning of M. chords (as well as others) depends primarily on the specific direction of movement, on the lines of voices between the initial and target tone. G. L. Catoire understood M. as a result of the displacement of prim and fifths in the main triads (for example, in C – dur
In the concept of the authors of the “Practical Course of Harmony” (I. V. Sposobina, I. I. Dubovsky, S. V. Evseev, V. V. Sokolov, 1934-1935), a mixed step-functional value is assigned to M chords ( in C-dur egh – DTIII, a – c – e – TS VI)
(At the same time, the step interpretation again acquires greater weight, and the whole concept goes back not only to Riemann, but, to no lesser extent, to Rimsky-Korsakov). In the theory of variables, the functions of Yu. N. Tyulin, the third step in the major can perform the functions T and D, and VI – T, S and D; in minor III – T, S and D, and VI – T and S. (Examples of different interpretations of the same harmonic sequence):
2) In the structure of Gregorian melodies, M. (mediante; other names – metrum) – the middle conclusion (according to B.V. Asafiev – “caesura half-cadence”), dividing the whole into two symmetrically balanced halves:
References: 1) Tchaikovsky P.I., Guide to the practical study of harmony, M., 1872, the same, Poln. coll. cit., vol. III a, M., 1957, Rimsky-Korsakov HA, Practical textbook of harmony, St. Petersburg, 1886, reprinted. in Full. coll. soch., vol. IV, M., 1960; Catuar G. L., Theoretical course of harmony, part 1, M., 1924; Practical course of harmony, part 1, M., 1934 (ed. Sposobin I., Dubovsky I., Evseev S., Sokolov V.; Berkov V., Harmony, part 1-3, M., 1962-66, M., 1970; Tyulin Yu., Privavo N., Theoretical Foundations of Harmony, M., 1965, Weber G., Versuch einer geordneten Theorie der Tonsetzkunst, Bd 1-3, Mainz, 1818-21; Riemann H., Vereinfachte Harmonielehre Schenker H., Neue musikalische Theorien und Phantasien, Bd 1893-1896, Stuttg.-B-W, 1901-1, 3.
2) Gruber R. I., History of musical culture, vol. 1, part 1, M.-L., 1941, p. 394
Yu. N. Kholopov