Zone (from the Greek zonn – belt) – characterizes the relationship between the elements of music. sound as a physical phenomena (frequency, intensity, composition of sound, duration) and its muses. qualities (pitch, loudness, timbre, duration) as reflections in the human mind of these physical. sound properties. The concept was introduced by owls. music acoustician N. A. Garbuzov. Specialist. research has found, in particular, that each of the steps of the muses. scale (c, cis, d, etc.) with physical. the side corresponds not to one frequency, as in one or another mathematically expressed system (for example, equal temperament), but a number of closely spaced frequencies; when the frequencies change within these limits, the sound quality as a certain level does not change: for example, the sound a1 can have not only 440 Hz (OST 7710), but also 439, 438, 437, 436, 435, as well as 441, 442, 443, 444 , 445 Hz, without turning into either gis1 or b1. Such frequency ranges are called sound-altitude zones. In Garbuzov’s experiments, individuals with very good absolute pitch tuned strings or special instruments. devices for given sounds with means. frequency fluctuations; the width of the zone in the extreme registers sometimes exceeded 200 cents (i.e. a whole tone!). Highly qualified musicians with good attitudes. Hearing set the specified intervals with fluctuations up to 60-70 cents. Similar results were observed in the study of passive manifestations of absolute or relative hearing (i.e., when evaluating different intonational variants of individual steps of the scale or variants of frequency ratios in intervals). The zone cannot be identified with threshold values (eg, with a height discrimination threshold equal to 5-6 cents); within the pitch zone, musicians can distinguish, according to Garbuzov, up to 10 intonations. shades. Establishing the zonal nature of pitch hearing opens up new possibilities for the study of art. music interpretations. works. In the works of Garbuzov, as well as his students and followers (A. V. Rabinovich, E. A. Maltseva, S. G. Korsunsky, O. E. Sakhaltuyeva, Yu. N. Rags, E. V. Nazaykinsky), the aesthetic meaning of the concept of “zone”. The artistic intent of the composer and the interpretation plan of the performer influence the choice of one or another intonation from the zone. Z., thus, indicates the scope of the high-pitched expressive possibilities available to the performer. The concept of Z. is also extended by Garbuzov to the perception of tempo and rhythm, dynamic (loud) and timbre hearing (see Musical ear). The concept of the zone nature of music. hearing had a great influence on the development of pedagogical. and theoretical views of musicians-performers and is reflected in many. textbooks, manuals allowances, schools published in the USSR and abroad. New theoretical views allowed to conduct a number of studies of the process of muses. execution and give quantities. and qualities. estimates pl. phenomena of the “microworld” of music. performance not previously considered.
References: Rabinovich A. V., Oscillographic method of melody analysis, M., 1932; Korsunsky S. G., Zones of intervals when playing them on instruments with free intonation, Physiological Journal of the USSR, 1946, v. 32, No 6; Garbuzov HA, Zonal nature of pitch hearing, M.-L., 1948; his own, Zone nature of tempo and rhythm, M., 1950; his, Intrazonal intonation hearing and methods of its development, M.-L., 1951; his, Zonal nature of dynamic hearing, M., 1955; his own, Zone nature of timbre hearing, M., 1956; Sakhaltueva O. E., On some patterns of intonation in connection with form, dynamics and harmony, in: Proceedings of the Department of Music Theory of the Moscow State Conservatory. P. I. Tchaikovsky, vol. 1, Moscow, 1960; Rags Yu. N., Intonation of a melody in connection with some of its elements, ibid.; Rags Yu. N. and Nazaikinsky E. V., Musical-theoretical research and development of the theory of hearing, in collection: “Laboratory of Musical Acoustics” (on the 100th anniversary of the MoLGK named after P.I. Tchaikovsky), M., 1966.
Yu. N. Rags