Memory from childhood has kept a funny number of a clown in a circus. From the pockets of the suit, the artist took out harmonicas. Each one is smaller than the previous one. What a surprise it was when, while watching a recording of a concert of Irish folk music, a similar instrument appeared in the hands of a musician – a small elegant harmonica.
What is a concertina
The concertina musical instrument is a member of the hand harmonica family and a relative of the famous Russian harmonica. Musicians perform wonderful folk melodies on it. Sometimes it is called concertino, but this is incorrect, since this word, translated from Italian, means concert.
Structurally, the tool consists of:
- Two half-shells: the right one with fretboard keys for leading the melody and the left one for accompaniment.
- Fur chamber (bellows) to create a pneumonic air flow pressure inside the tool.
- Wrist, wrist, shoulder straps and thumb loops.
The interior of the semi-hulls includes:
- leverage system;
- voice bars.
The last elements of the design of harmonics are considered the main ones.
The concertina belongs to the orchestral instruments and represents the family of European harmonicas: English and German concertinas, bandoneon and accordion.
Depending on the sound extraction system, three types can be distinguished:
- 30-button Anglo (Anglo) and 20-button Dutch (Dutch);
- English (English) with a different number of buttons;
- duet – a symbiosis of both species.
With the general principle of sound extraction – squeezing and unclenching the bellows – they differ in the way the reed pneumonic instrument is attached to the hands of the musician.
England is considered the birthplace of this instrument. It was invented by Charles Wheatstone in 1827. The master first created a wind instrument with buttons, which he inherited a small harmonica, which he patented in 1833. Due to the use in the manufacture of silver, the harmonica had a high cost.
A year earlier, in 1832, the German master Friedrich Uhlig had constructed a German (Dutch) square concertina. Cheap in price, it became popular in Europe.
The difference between them was not only in price, but also in the sounds made. English sounds are the same, German sounds are different.
In Russia, the concertina appeared in the XNUMXs as a musical instrument to accompany choral singing. Later gained popularity among musically educated people.
How to play the concertina
When played, sounds are produced using four rows of buttons on two decks.
The notes written on the note lines are played with the left hand on the lower deck. Notes between the lines – with the right hand on the top deck.
Playing the instrument through bellows gets a bright chromatic scale.
Over time, the harmonic began to disappear. The persecution made it the musical instrument of eccentrics and clowns. But the Scots and Irish are still faithful to it, which, like our harmonicas, has become a national identity.
Gyroid O Holmherein, Noel Hill and others are noted among popular Western harmonists.
Valentin Osipov, a virtuoso of performing classical works on the concertina, and couplet player Nikolai Bandurin are known in our country today.