Cadence |
Music Terms

Cadence |

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terms and concepts

Cadence (Italian cadenza, from Latin cado – I fall, I end), cadence (French cadence).

1) Final harmonic. (as well as melodic) turnover, the final musical. construction and giving it completeness, wholeness. In the major-minor tonal system of the 17th-19th centuries. in K. are usually combined metrorhythmic. support (for example, a metrical accent in the 8th or 4th bar of a simple period) and a stop at one of the most functionally important harmonies (on I, V, less often on the IV step, sometimes on other chords). Full, i.e., ending on the tonic (T), chord composition are divided into authentic (VI) and plagal (IV-I). K. is perfect if T appears in melodic. the position of the prima, in a heavy measure, after the dominant (D) or subdominant (S) in the main. form, not in circulation. If one of these conditions is absent, the to. is considered imperfect. K., ending in D (or S), called. half (eg, IV, II-V, VI-V, I-IV); a kind of half-authentic. K. can be considered so-called. Phrygian cadence (final turnover type IV6-V in harmonic minor). A special type is the so-called. interrupted (false) K. – violation of authentic. To. owing to replacement tonic. triads in other chords (V-VI, V-IV6, V-IV, V-16, etc.).

Full cadenzas

Half cadenzas. Phrygian cadence

Interrupted cadences

By location in music. form (for example, in the period) distinguish median K. (within the construction, more often type IV or IV-V), final (at the end of the main part of the construction, usually VI) and additional (attached after the final K., t ie whorls VI or IV-I).

harmonic formulas-K. historically precede monophonic melodic. conclusions (i.e., in essence, K.) in the modal system of the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance (see Medieval modes), the so-called. clauses (from lat. claudere – to conclude). The clause covers the sounds: antipenultim (antepaenultima; preceding penultimate), penultim (paenultima; penultimate) and ultima (ultima; last); the most important of them are penultim and ultim. The clause on the finalis (finalis) was considered perfect K. (clausula perfecta), on any other tone – imperfect (clausula imperfecta). The most frequently encountered clauses were classified as “treble” or soprano (VII-I), “alto” (VV), “tenor” (II-I), however, not assigned to the corresponding voices, and from ser. 15th c. “bass” (VI). The deviation from the lead-in step VII-I, usual for old frets, gave the so-called. “Landino’s clause” (or later “Landino’s cadenza”; VII-VI-I). The simultaneous combination of these (and similar) melodic. K. composed cadence chord progressions:


Conduct “Who you deserve in Christ.” 13 c.

G. de Macho. Motet. 14th c.

G. Monk. Three-part instrumental piece. 15th c.

J. Okegem. Missa sine nomina, Kyrie. 15th c.

Arising in a similar way harmonic. turnover VI has become more and more systematically used in conclusions. K. (from the 2nd half of the 15th century and especially in the 16th century, along with the plagal, “church”, K. IV-I). Italian theorists of the 16th century. introduced the term “K.”

Beginning around the 17th century. cadence turnover VI (together with its “inversion” IV-I) permeates not only the conclusion of the play or its part, but all its constructions. This led to a new structure of mode and harmony (it is sometimes called cadence harmony – Kadenzharmonik).

Deep theoretical substantiation of the system of harmony through the analysis of its core – authentic. K. – owned by J. F. Rameau. He explained the music-logic. harmony chord relationships K., relying on nature. the prerequisites laid down in the very nature of the muses. sound: the dominant sound is contained in the composition of the sound of the tonic and, thus, is, as it were, generated by it; the transition of the dominant to the tonic is the return of the derived (generated) element to its original source. Rameau gave the classification of K species that still exists today: perfect (parfaite, VI), plagal (according to Rameau, “wrong” – irregulare, IV-I), interrupted (literally “broken” – rompue, V-VI, V-IV) . The extension of the fifth ratio of authentic K. (“triple proportion” – 3: 1) to other chords, in addition to VI-IV (for example, in a sequence of the type I-IV-VII-III-VI-II-VI), Rameau called “imitation of K .” (reproduction of the cadence formula in pairs of chords: I-IV, VII-III, VI-II).

M. Hauptman and then X. Riemann revealed the dialectic of the ratio of the main. classical chords. K. According to Hauptmann, the internal contradiction of the initial tonic consists in its “bifurcation”, in that it is in opposite relations to the subdominant (containing the main tone of the tonic as a fifth) and to the dominant (containing the fifth of the tonic as the main tone) . According to Riemann, the alternation of T and D is a simple non-dialectical. tone display. In the transition from T to S (which is similar to the resolution of D in T), there occurs, as it were, a temporary shift in the center of gravity. The appearance of D and its resolution in T restores the supremacy of T again and asserts it at a higher level.

B. V. Asafiev explained K. from the standpoint of the theory of intonation. He interprets K. as a generalization of the characteristic elements of the mode, as a complex of stylistically individual intonational meloharmonics. formulas, opposing the mechanicalness of the pre-established “ready-made flourishes” prescribed by school theory and theoretical. abstractions.

The evolution of harmony in con. 19th and 20th centuries led to a radical update of the K. formulas. Although K. continues to fulfill the same general compositional logic. will close the function. turnover, the former means of realizing this function sometimes turn out to be completely replaced by others, depending on the specific sound material of a given piece (as a result, the legitimacy of using the term “K.” in other cases is doubtful). The effect of conclusion in such cases is determined by the dependence of the means of conclusion on the entire sound structure of the work:

M. P. Mussorgsky. “Boris Godunov”, act IV.

S. S. Prokofiev. “Fleeting”, No 2.

2) From the 16th century. a virtuoso conclusion of a solo vocal (opera aria) or instrumental music, improvised by a performer or written out by a composer. plays. In the 18th century a special form of similar K. has developed in instr. concert. Before the beginning 19th century it was usually located in the coda, between the cadence quarter-sixth chord and the D-seventh chord, appearing as an embellishment of the first of these harmonies. K. is, as it were, a small solo virtuoso fantasy on the themes of the concert. In the era of the Viennese classics, K.’s composition or its improvisation during performance was provided to the performer. Thus, in the strictly fixed text of the work, one section was provided, which was not stably established by the author and could be composed (improvised) by another musician. Subsequently, the composers themselves began to create crystals (beginning with L. Beethoven). Thanks to this, K. merges more with the form of compositions as a whole. Sometimes K. also performs more important functions, constituting an integral part of the concept of the composition (for example, in Rachmaninov’s 3rd concerto). Occasionally, K. is also found in other genres.

References: 1) Smolensky S., “Music Grammar” by Nikolai Diletsky, (St. Petersburg), 1910; Rimsky-Korsakov HA, Harmony Textbook, St. Petersburg, 1884-85; his own, Practical textbook of harmony, St. Petersburg, 1886, reprint of both textbooks: Full. coll. soch., vol. IV, M., 1960; Asafiev B. V., Musical form as a process, parts 1-2, M. – L., 1930-47, L., 1971; Dubovsky I., Evseev S., Sposobin I., Sokolov V. (at 1 hour), Practical course of harmony, part 1-2, M., 1934-35; Tyulin Yu. N., The doctrine of harmony, (L. – M.), 1937, M., 1966; Sposobin I. V., Lectures on the course of harmony, M., 1969; Mazel L. A., Problems of classical harmony, M., 1972; Zarino G., Le istitutioni harmoniche (Terza parte Cap. 1), Venetia, 51, fax. ed., NY, 1558, Russian. per. chapter “On cadence” see in Sat.: Musical Aesthetics of the Western European Middle Ages and the Renaissance, comp. V. P. Shestakov, M., 1965, p. 1966-474; Rameau J. Ph., Traité de l’harmonie…, P., 476; his own, Génération harmonique, P., 1722; Hauptmann M., Die Natur der Harmonik und der Metrik, Lpz., 1737; Riemann H., Musikalische Syntaxis, Lpz., 1853; his own, Systematische Modulationslehre…, Hamburg, 1877; Russian trans.: The systematic doctrine of modulation as the basis of the doctrine of musical forms, M. – Leipzig, 1887; his own, Vereinfachte Harmonielehre …, V., 1898 (Russian translation – Simplified harmony or the doctrine of the tonal functions of chords, M., 1893, M. – Leipzig, 1896); Casela A., L’evoluzione della musica a traverso la storia della cadenza perfetta (1901), engl, transl., L., 11; Tenschert R., Die Kadenzbehandlung bei R. Strauss, “ZfMw”, VIII, 1919-1923; Hindemith P., Unterweisung im Tonsatz, Tl I, Mainz, 1925; Chominski JM, Historia harmonii i kontrapunktu, t. I-II, Kr., 1926-1937; Stockhausen K., Kadenzrhythmik im Werk Mozarts, in his book: “Texte…”, Bd 1958, Köln, 1962, S. 2-1964; Homan FW, Final and internal cadential patterns in Gregorian chant, “JAMS”, v. XVII, No 170, 206; Dahhaus S., Untersuchungen über die Entstehung der harmonischen Tonalität, Kassel – (ua), 1. See also lit. under the article Harmony.

2) Schering A., The Free Cadence in the 18th Century Instrumental Concerto, «Congress of the International Music Society», Basilea, 1906; Knцdt H., On the history of the development of the cadences in the instrumental concerto, «SIMG», XV, 1914, p. 375; Stockhausen R., The cadenzas to the piano concertos of the Viennese classics, W., 1936; Misch L., Beethoven Studies, В., 1950.

Yu. H. Kholopov

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