French accord, ital. accordo, from late Lat. accordo – agree
Consonance of three or more different. (opposite) sounds, which are separated from each other by a third or can be (by permutations) arranged in thirds. In a similar way, A. was first defined by J. G. Walter (“Musikalisches Lexikon oder Musikalische Bibliothek”, 1732). Prior to this, A. was understood as intervals – all or only consonances, as well as any combination of tones in simultaneous sounding.
Depending on the number of dissimilar sounds that make up an A., a triad (3 sounds), a seventh chord (4), a nonchord (5), and an undecimaccord (6, which is rare, as well as A. of 7 sounds), are distinguished. The lower sound A. is called the main. tone, the rest of the sounds are named. according to the interval formed by them with the main. tone (third, fifth, seventh, nona, undecima). Any A. sound can be transferred to another octave or doubled (tripled, etc.) in other octaves. At the same time, A. retains its name. If the main the tone goes into the upper or one of the middle voices, the so-called. chord reversal.
A. can be located both closely and widely. With a close arrangement of the triad and its appeals in four parts, the voices (except for the bass) are separated from each other by a third or a quart, in a wide one – by a fifth, a sixth and an octave. The bass can form any interval with the tenor. There is also a mixed arrangement of A., in which signs of close and wide arrangement are combined.
Two sides are distinguished in A. – functional, determined by its relation to the tonic mode, and phonic (colorful), depending on the interval composition, location, register, and also on the muses. context.
Main the regularity of the structure of A. remains to this day. time tertsovost composition. Any deviation from it means the introduction of non-chord sounds. At the end of the 19th and 20th centuries. attempts were made to completely replace the third principle with the fourth principle (A. N. Skryabin, A. Schoenberg), but the latter received only limited application.
In modern Complicated tertian rhythms are widely used in music, in which the introduction of dissonances increases the expressiveness and colorfulness of the sound (S. S. Prokofiev):
Composers of the 20th century A. mixed structure is also used.
In dodecaphonic music, A. loses its independent meaning and becomes derived from the succession of sounds in the “series” and its polyphonic. transformations.
References: Rimsky-Korsakov HA, Harmony Textbook, St. Petersburg, 1884-85; his own, Practical textbook of harmony, St. Petersburg, 1886, M., 1956 (both editions were included in the Complete collection of works, vol. IV, M., 1960); Ippolitov-Ivanov M. M., The doctrine of chords, their construction and resolution, M., 1897; Dubovsky I., Evseev S., Sposobin I., Sokolov V., Textbook of harmony, part 1-2, 1937-38, last. ed. 1965; Tyulin Yu., Teaching about harmony, L.-M., 1939, M., 1966, ch. 9; Tyulin Yu., Privano N., Textbook of harmony, part 1, M., 1957; Tyulin Yu., Textbook of harmony, part 2, M., 1959; Berkov V., Harmony, part 1-3, M., 1962-66, 1970; Riemann H., Geschichte der Musiktheorie, Lpz., 1898, B., 1920; Schonberg A., Harmonielehre, Lpz.-W., 1911, W., 1922; Hindemith P., Unterweisung im Tonsatz, Tl 1, Mainz, 1937; Schonberg A., Structural functions of harmony, L.-NY, 1954; Janecek K., Základy modern harmonie, Praha, 1965.
Yu. G. Kon