ital. trio, from lat. tres, tria – three
1) An ensemble of 3 musicians. According to the composition of the performers, instr., wok. (see also Tercet) and wok.-instr. T.; according to the composition of the instruments – homogeneous (for example, bowed strings – violin, viola, cello) and mixed (strings with a spirit instrument or piano).
2) Music. prod. for 3 instruments or singing voices. Tool T. along with strings. quartet belongs to the most common varieties of chamber music and comes from the old trio sonata (sonata a tre) of the 17-18 centuries, intended for 3 concert instruments (for example, 2 violins and a viola da gamba), which was often joined by 4 th voice (piano, organ, etc.) leading the basso continuo part (A. Corelli, A. Vivaldi, G. Tartini). Classic tool type T. is based on the sonata-cyclic. form. The leading place is occupied by the FP genre. T. (violin, cello, piano), which originated in the middle. 18th century in the work of composers of the Mannheim school. The first classic samples – fp. the trio of J. Haydn, in which independence of voices has not yet been achieved. In the trio of W. A. Mozart and the early trios of Beethoven (op. 1) ch. the role belongs to FP. parties; Beethoven trio op. 70 and op. 97, relating to the period of the composer’s creative maturity, are distinguished by the equality of all members of the ensemble, the development of instruments. parties, texture complexity. Outstanding examples of fp. Theater was created by F. Schubert, R. Schumann, I. Brahms, P. I. Tchaikovsky (“In Memory of the Great Artist”, 1882), S. V. Rachmaninov (“Elegiac Trio” in memory of P. I. Tchaikovsky, 1893), D. D. Shostakovich (op. 67, in memory of I. I. Sollertinsky). The genre of strings is less common. T. (violin, viola, cello; e.g., strings. trio of Haydn, Beethoven; strings. trio of Borodin on the theme of the song “How did I upset you”, strings. trio of S. I. Taneyev). Other combinations of instruments are also used, for example. in Glinka’s Pathetic Trio for piano, clarinet and bassoon; trio for 2 oboes and English. horn, trio for piano, clarinet and cello by Beethoven; Brahms trio for piano, violin and horn, etc. Wok. T. — one of the main. opera forms, as well as independent. prod. for 3 votes.
3) Middle part (section) instr. pieces, dance (minuet), march, scherzo, etc., usually contrasting with more mobile extreme parts. Name “T.” arose in the 17th century, when in orc. prod. the middle part of the three-part form, unlike the rest, was performed by only three instruments.
4) Three-part organ piece for 2 manuals and a pedal, thanks to dec. By registering keyboards, a timbre contrast is created between voices.
References: Gaidamovich T., Instrumental ensembles, M., 1960, M., 1963; Raaben L., Instrumental Ensemble in Russian Music, M., 1961; Mironov L., Beethoven Trio for piano, violin and cello, M., 1974.
I. E. Manukyan