Sound system |
Music Terms

Sound system |

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terms and concepts

Greek sustnma, German. Tonsystem

Altitude (interval) organization of music. sounds based on c.-l. single principle. At the heart of Z. with. there always lies a series of tones in definite, measurable ratios. The term Z. With.” applied in various values:

1) sound composition, i.e. the totality of sounds used within a certain interval (often within an octave, for example, five-sound, twelve-sound systems);

2) a definite arrangement of the elements of the system (the sound system as a scale; the sound system as a complex of sound groups, for example, chords in the tonal system of major and minor);

3) a system of qualitative, semantic relations, functions of sounds, which is formed on the basis of a certain principle of connection between them (for example, the meaning of tones in melodic modes, harmonic tonality);

4) build, mathematical. expression of relations between sounds (Pythagorean system, equal temperament system).

Main the meaning of the concept of Z. with. associated with the sound composition and its structure. Z. s. reflects the degree of development, logical. connectedness and orderliness of muses. thinking and historically evolves with it. The evolution of Z. with., in real historical. The process, carried out in a complex way and replete with internal contradictions, on the whole definitely leads to a refinement of sound differentiation, an increase in the number of tones included in the system, strengthening and simplifying the connections between them, creating a complex branched hierarchy of connections based on sound kinship.

Logic scheme of development Z. with. only approximately corresponds to the concrete historical. the process of its formation. Z. s. in own sense genetically precedes primitive glissanding, devoid of differentiated tones, from which reference sounds are just beginning to stand out.

The tune of the Kubu tribe (Sumatra) is the love song of a young man. According to E. Hornbostel.

The lower form of Z. s that replaces it. represents the singing of one reference tone, standing (), adjacent () above or below.

Russian folk joke


An adjacent tone may not be fixed stably at a certain height or be approximate in height.

The further growth of the system determines the possibility of stepwise, cantilena movement of the melody (under the conditions of a five-, seven-step system or a different scale structure) and ensures the coherence of the whole due to reliance on sounds that are in relations of the highest relationship with each other. Therefore, the next most important stage in the development of Z. s. – “the era of the quart”, filling the gap between the sounds of the “first consonance” (the quart turns out to be the sound that is the least distant from the original reference tone and is in perfect consonance with it; as a result, it gains an advantage over other, even more perfect consonances – an octave, a fifth) . Filling a quart forms a series of sound systems – non-semitone trichords and several tetrachords of various structures:





At the same time, adjacent and passing tones are stabilized and become supports for new adjacent ones. On the basis of the tetrachord, pentachords, hexachords arise:


round dance

From the coupling of trichords and tetrachords, as well as pentachords (in a fused or separate way), composite systems are formed that differ in the number of sounds – hexachords, heptachords, octachords, which, in turn, are combined into even more complex, multi-component sound systems. octave and non-octave:




Znamenny chant




Theoretical generalization of the practice of introducing tone in Europe. music of the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance (“musica ficta”), when whole-tone conclusions and whole-tone successions were increasingly systematically replaced by halftones (for example, instead of c-d ed stroke cis-d etc.), expressed in the form of chromatic-enharmonic. seventeen-step scale (by Prosdochimo de Beldemandis, late 14th – early 15th centuries):

The development of polyphony and the formation of a consonant triad as the main element of the soundtrack. led to its complete internal reorganization – the grouping of all the tones of the system around this basic consonance, which acts as a center, tonic function. triads (tonic), and in the form of its animations on all other steps of the diatonic. gamma:

The role of the constructive factor Z. s. gradually passes from ladomelodich. models to chord-harmonic; in accordance with this Z. with. begins to be presented not in the form of a scale (“stairs of sounds” – scala, Tonleiter), but in the form of functionally related sound groups. As well as at other stages of development of Z. with., all the major lines of earlier forms Z. with. are also present in the more highly developed Z. s. melodic energy. linearity, microsystems from the reference tone (stave) and adjacent ones, filling the fourth (and fifth), multiplication of tetrachords, etc. Complexes belonging to a single centralization. whole sound groups—chords at all levels—together with certain scales, they become a new type of sound s—harmonics. tonality (see note above), and their ordered combination constitutes a “system of systems” of major and minor keys at each of the chromatic steps. scale. The total sonic volume of the system theoretically extends to infinity, but is limited by the possibilities of pitch perception and is a chromatically filled range ranging from approximately A2 to c5. The formation of the major-minor tonal system in the 16th century. required the replacement of the Pythagorean system in pure fifths (for example, f – c – g – d – a – e – h) with a fifth-tertian (the so-called pure, or natural, Fogliani – Zarlino system), using two builds. interval – a fifth 2:3 and a major third 4:5 (for example, F – a – C – e – G – h – D; large letters indicate prima and fifths of triads, small letters indicate thirds, according to M. Hauptmann). The development of the tonal system (especially the practice of using different keys) necessitated a uniform temperament system.

Contact elements decomp. tonality leads to the establishment of links between them, to their convergence and further – merging. Together with the counter process of the growth of intratonal chromaticity (alteration), the merging of different tonal elements leads to the fact that within the same tonality any interval, any chord and any scale from each step are fundamentally possible. This process prepared a new reorganization of the Z.’s structure with. in the work of a number of composers of the 20th century: all stages of chromatic. their scales are emancipated, the system turns into a 12-step system, where each interval is understood directly (and not on the basis of fifths or fifth-tertz relations); and the original structural unit Z. s. becomes a semitone (or a major seventh) – as a derivative of a fifth and a major third. This makes it possible to build symmetrical (for example, terzochromatic) modes and systems, the emergence of a tonal twelve-step, the so-called. “free atonality” (see Atonal music), serial organization (in particular, dodecaphony), etc.

Non-European Z. with. (eg, countries of Asia, Africa) sometimes form varieties that are far removed from European ones. Thus, the more or less usual diatonic of Indian music is embellished with intonation. shades, theoretically explained as the result of dividing the octave into 22 parts (the shruti system, also interpreted as the totality of all possible heights).

In Javanese music, the 5- and 7-step “equal” divisions of the octave (slendro and pelog) do not coincide with either the usual anhemitonic pentatonic scale or the fifth or fifth-tertz diatonic scale.

References: Serov AH, Russian folk song as a subject of science (3 articles), “Musical Season”, 1869-70, No 18, 1870-71, No 6 and 13, reprinted. in his book: Selected Articles, vol. 1, M.-L., 1950; Sokalsky P. P., Russian folk music?, Har., 1888, Peter V. I., On the compositions, structures and modes in ancient Greek music, K., 1901 Yavorsky B., The structure of musical speech, vol. 1-3, M., 1908, Tyulin Yu. H., Teaching about harmony, L., 1937, M, 1966; Kuznetsov K. A., Arabic music, in: Essays on the history and theory of music, vol. 2, L., 1940; Ogolevets A. S., Introduction to modern musical thinking, M.-L., 1946; Musical acoustics. Tot. Ed. H. A. Garbuzova, M, 1954; Jami A., Treatise on Music. Ed. and comments by V. M. Belyaev, Tash., 1960; Pereverzev N. K., Problems of musical intonation, M., 1966; Meshchaninov P., Evolution of the pitch fabric (structural-acoustic substantiation …), M., 1970 (manuscript); Kotlyarevsky I., Diatonics and chromatics as a category of musical thinking, Kipv, 1971; Fortlage K., Das musikalische System der Griechen in seiner Urgestalt, Lpz., 1847, Riemann H., Katechismus der Musikgeschichte, Tl 1, Lpz., 1888, Rus. per. – Catechism of the history of music, part 1, M., 1896), his own, Das chromatische Tonsystem, in his book: Preludien und Studien, Bd I, Lpz., 1895.

Yu. H. Kholopov

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