Sound musical |
Music Terms

Sound musical |

Dictionary categories
terms and concepts

The smallest structural element of music. Compared to all audible “non-musical” sounds, it has a number of features that are determined by the device of the hearing organ, the communicative nature of the muses. art and aesthetic requests of musicians and listeners.

Main the properties of sound waves are pitch, loudness, duration, and timbre. Z. m. can have a pitch ranging from C2 to c5 – d6 (from 16 to 4000-4500 Hz; higher sounds are included in the Z. m. as overtones); its volume should be greater than the noise level in the room, but cannot exceed the pain threshold; the duration of the Z. m. is very diverse – the shortest sounds (in fast passages – glissando) cannot be shorter than 0,015-0,020 seconds (beyond this limit, the feeling of height is lost), the longest (for example, pedal sounds of the organ) can last several minutes ; only in relation to timbre it is difficult to establish k.-l. physiological limits, since the number of combinations of pitch, loudness, temporal and other components, from which the idea of ​​timbre (elementary from the point of view of perception) is formed, is practically infinite.

In the process of music Z.’s practices of m. are organized in muses. System. So, in each octave, only 12 times l are most often used. according to the height of sounds separated by a semitone from each other (see. System). Dynamic shades are subject to a scale of loudness ratios (eg, pp, p, mp, mf, f, ff), which does not have absolute values ​​(see Dynamics). In the most common scale of durations, adjacent sounds are in the ratio 1:2 (eighths are related to quarters, like quarters to halves, etc.), ratios of 1:3 or other more complex ones are less often used. The timbres of the soundtracks are distinguished by a special individualization. Sounds of the violin and trombone, piano. and English. horns vary greatly in timbre; important, although more subtle differences are also found in the timbres of instruments of the same type (for example, bowed strings). The sound system of the soundtrack is very complex. Each Z. m. can be considered with acoustic. sides, eg. according to whether there is a harmonic in its composition. (most characteristic of Z. m.) or inharmonious. a number of overtones, whether there are formants in it, what part of it is noise, etc.; it can be characterized by the type of instrument, on which it is extracted (stringed plucked, electromusical, etc.); it can also be included in one or another system on the basis of the possibility of combining with other sounds (see Instrumentation).

Although in a musical text each sound is usually fixed as something unambiguous, in reality the sounds are very flexible, internally mobile, and are characterized by numerous. transient or non-stationary processes. Some of these transient processes are organically inherent in Z. m. and are a consequence of acoustic. features of music. instrument or method of sound production – such is the attenuation of the sounds of the fp., harp, decomp. types of attack in the sounds of strings. bowed and spirit. tools, various aperiodic and periodic. changes in timbre in the sounds of the beat series. instruments – for example, bells, tam-tama. Another part of transient processes is created by performers, Ch. arr. to achieve greater connectivity of sounds or highlight separate. sounds in line with the arts. by design. These are glissando, portamento, vibrato, dynamic. accents, dec. rhythmic and timbre changes, which make up a complex system of intonation (sound-altitude), dynamic. (loud), agogic. (tempo and rhythm) and timbre shades.

Separately taken Z. m. do not have k.-l. will express. properties, but being organized in one or another muses. system and included in the music. fabric, perform express. functions. Therefore, often Z. m. are endowed with certain properties; they, as parts, are attributed the properties of the whole. In the music practice (especially pedagogical) an extensive dictionary of terms has been developed, in which aesthetics are also reflected. requirements for ZM These norms, however, are historically determined and are closely related to the style of music.

References: Mutli A.F., Sound and hearing, in: Questions of musicology, vol. 3, M., 1960; Musical acoustics, total. ed. Edited by N. A. Garbuzova. Moscow, 1954. Helmholtz H. v., Die Lehre von den Tonempfindungen…, Braunschweig, 1863 and reprinted; Stumpf, C., Tonpsychologie, Bd 1-2, Lpz., 1883-90; Waetzmann R., Ton, Klang und sekundäre Klangerscheinungen, “Handbuch der normalen und pathologischen Physiologie”, Bd XI, B., 1926, S. 563-601; Handschin J., Der Toncharakter, Z., 1948; Eggebrecht HH, Musik als Tonsprache, “AfMw”, Jg. XVIII, 1961.

Y. H. Rags

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