Side tone |
Music Terms

Side tone |

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terms and concepts

French note added, nem. Zusatzton, Zusatzton

The sound of a chord that does not belong to (is added to) its structural base. In another interpretation, P. t. is “a non-chord sound (i.e., not included in the tertian structure of a chord), which acquires harmonic meaning in a given consonance as its constituent element” (Yu. N. Tyulin); Both interpretations can be combined. Most often, P. t. is spoken of in relation to a tone that is not included in the tertian structure of a chord (for example, a sixth in D7). A distinction is made between substitutive (taken instead of the associated chordal) and penetrating (taken together with it).

F. Chopin. Mazurka op. 17 no 4.

P. I. Tchaikovsky. 6th symphony, movement IV.

P. t. are possible in relation not only to third chords, but also to chords of a different structure, as well as to polychords:

The addition of P. tones (especially two or three P. tones) usually leads to the transformation of a chord into a polychord. P. t. create a three-element functional differentiation in the structure of the chord: 1) main. tone (“root” of the chord), 2) other tones of the main. structures (together with the main tone “core” of the chord) and 3) secondary tones (in relation to the P. t., the “core” plays a role similar to the “main tone” of a higher order). Thus, the simplest functional relationships can be preserved even with a polyphonic dissonant chord:

S. S. Prokofiev. “Romeo and Juliet” (10 pieces for fp. op. 75, No 5, “Masks”).

As a phenomenon of harmonic thinking P. t. is closely connected with the history of dissonance. The seventh was originally fixed in the chord (D7) as a kind of “frozen” passing sound. The kinetics of chord dissonance is a reminder of its origin, of its “side-tone” nature. Crystallized in the 17-18 centuries. tertsovye chords (both consonant and dissonant) were fixed, however, as normative consonances. Therefore, P. t. should be distinguished not in such chords as V7 or II6 / 5, but in structurally more complex consonances (including consonances, the sounds of which can be arranged in thirds, for example, “tonic with a sixth”). P. t. is genetically related to acciaccatura, a performing technique of the 17th and 18th centuries. (with D. Scarlatti, L. Couperin, J. S. Bach). P. t. gained some distribution in the harmony of the 19th century. (the effect of the tonic with the sixth in the secondary theme of the finale of Beethoven’s 27th sonata for piano, “Chopin’s” dominant with the sixth, etc.). P. t. became a normative tool in the harmony of the 20th century. Perceived at first as “extra notes” (V. G. Karatygin), i.e. as non-chord sounds “stuck” in a chord, P. t. category, equal to the categories of chord and non-chord sounds.

As a theoretical the concept of P. t. goes back to the idea of ​​u1bu1bthe “added sixth” (sixte ajoutée) by J. P. Rameau (in the follow-up f2 a2 c1 d1 – c2 g2 c1 e1 the main tone of the 1st chord is f, not d, which is a P. T., a dissonance added to the triad f2 a4 cXNUMX). X. Riemann considered P. t. (Zusdtze) one of the XNUMX ways of forming dissonant chords (along with non-chord sounds on heavy and light beats, as well as alterations). O. Messiaen gave P. t. more complex forms. G. L. Catuar designates the term “P. t.” non-chord sounds, but specifically considers “harmonic combinations formed by side tones”. Yu. N. Tyulin gives P. t. a similar interpretation, subdividing them into replacement and taking root.

References: Karatygin V. G., Impressionist musician. (To the production of Debussy’s Peléas et Melisande), Speech, 1915, No 290; Catuar G. L., Theoretical course of harmony, part 2, M., 1925; Tyulin Yu. N., Textbook of harmony, part 2, M., 1959; his own, Modern harmony and its historical origin, in the collection: Questions of Contemporary Music, L., 1963, the same, in the collection: Theoretical Problems of Music of the 1th Century, vol. 1967, M., 2; Rashinyan Z. R., Textbook of harmony, book. 1966, Er., 1 (in Armenian); Kiseleva E., Secondary TONES In Prokofiev’s harmony, in: Theoretical problems of music of the 1967th century, vol. 4, M., 1973; Rivano N. G., Reader in harmony, part 8, M., 18, ch. eight; Gulyanitskaya N. S., The problem of the chord in modern harmony: about some Anglo-American concepts, in: Questions of Musicology, Proceedings of the State. Musical and Pedagogical Institute. Gnesins, no. 1976, Moscow, 1887; Riemann H., Handbuch der Harmonielehre, Lpz., 1929, 20; Carner M., A study of 1942th century harmony, L., (1944); Messiaen O., Technique de mon langage musical. P., (1951); Sessions R., Harmonic practice, NY, (1961); Rersichetti V., Twentieth century harmony NY, (1966); Ulehla L., Contemporary harmony. Romanticism through the twelvetone row, NY-L., (XNUMX).

Yu. H. Kholopov

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