Rumor musical |
Music Terms

Rumor musical |

Dictionary categories
terms and concepts

Musical hearing is the ability of a person to fully perceive music, a necessary prerequisite for composing and performing activities. Musical ear is the basis of music. thinking and music. appraisal activity. Typology C. м. not fully developed yet. Several different ones can be distinguished. levels of C. м. With music-physiological. side S. м. is the apparatus for perceiving music. sounds; it is due to natural data – the peculiarities of the structure and functioning of the human hearing organ as an external analyzer of muses. sounds. C. м. characterized by a wide range, high sensitivity of perception of otd. the qualities of music. sounds – pitch, loudness, timbre and duration (the perception of duration is not specific. ice ability). The lowest sounds perceived by hearing have a frequency of approx. 16 hertz (from subcontroctave), the highest – approx. 20 hertz (approximately es of the 000th octave); oscillating movements outside this range (infrasounds and ultrasounds) are not perceived as sounds at all. To changes in pitch, volume and timbre C. м. most sensitive in the middle register – from about 500 to 3000-4000 hertz, here the musicians distinguish between 5-6 cents (approx. 1/40 of a whole tone), a change in volume of 1 decibel (decibel – adopted in music. acoustics logarithm. unit for measuring sound volume level; expresses the ratio of the strength of two sounds); specialist. there are no units for the quantitative characteristic of the timbre. Below 500 and above 3000-4000 hertz, the sensitivity of hearing, especially to distinguish between small changes in height, is significantly reduced; above 4500-5000 hertz, the feeling of pitch as a step quality is lost. Normally, each person has this kind of natural data. At the same time, the differences between the breadth of the perceived range and the degree of sensitivity of S. м. at this level, musicians and non-musicians can be quite large, as well as individual differences among musicians. These qualities, however, do not determine the degree of musicality; high sensitivity of perception is natural data, to-rye are necessary for muses. activity, but do not guarantee its success. Specific manifestations of S. м. at this level are, on the one hand, Mr. absolute hearing, on the other hand, the hearing of the tuner (B. М. Thermal). Absolute pitch is a special kind of long-term memory for the pitch and timbre of a sound: the ability to recognize and determine using the names of notes (c, d, e, etc.). d.), the height of sounds of a melody, chord, even non-musical sounds, reproduce sounds of a given pitch by voice or on an instrument with an unfixed pitch (violin, etc.), without comparing them with others, the pitch of which is known. Absolute pitch is sometimes considered as a prerequisite for successful activity in the field of music, however, according to available data, some great composers (R. Wagner, A. N. Scriabin and others) did not possess it. Adjuster’s hearing – developed in a specific way. activity the ability to distinguish between minimal (up to 2 cents) changes in height otd. sounds or intervals. From music-psychological. side S. м. – a kind of mechanism for the primary processing of music. information and expression of attitude towards it – analysis and synthesis of its external acoustic. manifestations, its emotional evaluation. The ability to perceive, define, understand, represent decomp. relations, functional connections between sounds, based on the already mentioned natural data, a higher level of organization of S. m.; in this regard, they talk about a sense of rhythm, modal feeling, melodic, harmonic. and more types of hearing. When perceiving, the musician intuitively or consciously takes into account the most diverse. relationships between sounds. So, the modal feeling, on the one hand, is based on the ability of hearing to distinguish between pitch, loudness, and duration of sounds, on the other hand, its essence lies in the comprehension, understanding and emotional experience of the functional connections between the sounds that make up the muses. the whole (stability, instability, gravitation, degrees of intensity of sounds in a motive, phrase, intonation certainty, figurative-emotional specificity of these motives and phrases, etc.). d.). In a similar way, pitch hearing is based, on the one hand, on sensitivity to minimal changes in pitch, on the other, on the perception of modal, metrorhythmic, harmonic. and other connections, as well as their assessment in the musical-technological. and emotional plans (intonation – pure, false or expressive, calm, tense, etc.). P.). Specific manifestations of S. м. are such types of hearing, to-rye based on the perception of connections between muses. sounds: relative hearing, inner hearing, sense of music. form or architectonic. hearing etc. Relative, or interval, hearing – the ability to recognize, determine the pitch interval relationships between sounds, scale steps, which also manifests itself in the ability to reproduce intervals (seconds, thirds, quarts, etc.) etc.) both in melody and in harmony. Inner hearing – the ability to mentally represent remember) as a separate. music quality. sounds (pitch, timbre, etc.), and melodic, harmonic. sequences, whole music. plays in the unity of their components. The feeling of music forms – the ability to realize, understand and evaluate the proportionality of temporal relations between dec. music components. prod., their functional values ​​in general (squareness, non-squareness, tripartiteness, exposition, development, completion of development, etc.). This is one of the more complex forms of S. m.; it already borders on creative music. thinking. The most important component of S. м. is the general musicality, expressed in emotional responsiveness to music. phenomena, in the brightness and strength of specific muses. experiences. As practice shows, without such an emotional predisposition, a person is unsuitable for composing and performing activities, as well as for a full-fledged perception of music. C. м. in their different manifestations develops in the process of music. activity – increased sensitivity to distinguish between small changes in pitch, volume, timbre, etc. properties of sound, conditioned reflexes are developed on the relationship between sounds (for example, relative hearing improves, melodic, harmonic. hearing, sense of harmony), emotional responsiveness to music is enhanced. phenomenon. The exception is absolute pitch, which, apparently, cannot be acquired special. exercises; can only be developed Mr. false absolute pitch (term B. М. Teplov), which helps to determine the pitch indirectly, for example. on the timbre component of the sound. For the development of species S. м. developed by spec.

One of the manifestations of S.’s connection with m. with other abilities is the so-called. color hearing, osn. on arising under the influence of muses. sounds or their sequences in color representations of a subjective nature (synopsia).

Intensive studying of S. of m began with the 2nd floor. 19th century G. Helmholtz and K. Stumpf gave a detailed idea of ​​the work of the organ of hearing as an external analyzer of sound vibrations. movements and about certain features of the perception of music. sounds (eg, about consonance and dissonance); thus they laid the foundation for psychophysiological. acoustics. N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov and S. M. Maykapar are among the first in Russia in con. 19 – beg. 20th century studied S. m. with pedagogical. positions – as a basis for muses. activities; they described the S.’s manifestations of m, began development of S.’s typology of m; Rimsky-Korsakov, in particular, introduced the concept of “inner ear”, which was later developed by B. V. Asafiev. From the point of view of the physical acoustics, S. N. Rzhevkin paid much attention to the study of S. m. In the 30-50s. 20th century N. A. Garbuzov developed the concept of the zone nature of S. m. dynamic shades, rhythmic and tempo units, typical manifestations of timbre as elements of music. system is revealed in the process of perception as a set of dec. quantities. values ​​(see Zone). P. P. Baranovsky and E. E. Yutsevich developed the same kind of views regarding pitch hearing. A lot of research in the field of S. m. in the 30s. was carried out by the laboratory of C. Seashore at the University of Iowa (USA); significant is the work on vibrato. In con. 40s An important generalizing work by B. M. Teplov “Psychology of Musical Abilities” appeared, where for the first time a holistic view of S. m was given from the standpoint of psychology. In the 50-60s. in the music laboratory acoustics at Moscow. The conservatory conducted a number of studies of S. m. – specific manifestations of sound-high-pitched, tempo, and dynamic were revealed. zones in art. performance of music, sound-pitched intonation and dynamic (loudness) hearing, a sense of tempo were studied (in the works of O. E. Sakhaltueva, Yu. N. Rags, E. V. Nazaykinsky). Among the works of the 70s. in the field of S. m. – “On the psychology of musical perception” by E. V. Nazaykinsky and studies of pitch-timbre hearing performed by A. A. Volodin. The study of S. m. from the point of view of music. acoustics, physiology and psychology of hearing provides rich material for music. pedagogy. It represents the basis of many works in the field of methods of education of S. m. (for example, the work of A. L. Ostrovsky, E. V. Davydova). Knowledge concerning musical instruments is widely used in the design of new music. instruments, in particular electromusical, in architectural acoustics, for example. when calculating acoustic features of conc. premises. They are used in the implementation of sound recording (gramophone and magnetic) on radio, television, when scoring films, etc.

References: Maykapar S. M., Musical ear, its meaning, nature, features and method of correct development, M., 1900, P.,. 1915; Rimsky-Korsakov HA, On musical education, in his book: Musical articles and notes, St. Petersburg, 1911, the same, in his Full. coll. soch., vol. II, M., 1963; Rzhevkin S. N., Hearing and speech in the light of modern physical research, M.-L., 1928, 1936; Teplov B. M., Psychology of musical abilities, M.-L., 1947; the same, in his book: Problems of individual differences, M., 1961; Garbuzov N. A., Zonal nature of pitch hearing, M.-L., 1948; his own, Zone nature of tempo and rhythm, M., 1950; his, Intrazonal intonation hearing and methods of its development, M.-L., 1951; his, Zonal nature of dynamic hearing, M., 1955; his own, Zone nature of timbre hearing, M., 1956; Musical acoustics, M., 1954; Baranovsky P. P., Yutsevich E. V., Pitch analysis of the free melodic system, K., 1956; Laboratory of musical acoustics (to the 100th anniversary of the Moscow Order of Lenin of the State Conservatory named after P. I. Tchaikovsky), M., 1966; Volodin AA, Psychological aspects of the perception of musical sounds, M., 1972 (diss); Pags Yu., Nazaikinsky E., On the artistic possibilities of the synthesis of music and color (based on the analysis of the symphonic poem “Prometheus” by A. N. Scriabin), in: Musical Art and Science, vol. 1, M., 1970; Nazaikinsky E. V., On the psychology of musical perception, M., 1972; Heimholt H., Die Lehre von den Tonempfindungen als physiologische Grundlage fur die Theorie der Musik, Braunschweig, 1863, 1913

Yu. H. Parc

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