Canzona |
Music Terms

Canzona |

Dictionary categories
terms and concepts, musical genres

ital. canzone, canzona, from lat. cantio – singing, song; French chanson, spanish cancion, germ. Kanzone

Originally the name of the lyric variety. poems, which originated in Provence and became widespread in Italy in the 13th-17th centuries. Poetic. K. had strophic. structure and usually consisted of 5-7 stanzas. From its inception, it was closely associated with music, which emphasized its strophic. structure. K., composed by prominent Italian. poets, led by Petrarch, also received music. incarnation, usually for several. votes. With music. such K. sides approach frottola. In the 16th century There are also popular Italian forms of K., related to villanelle; these include the varieties canzoni alla napoletana and canzoni villanesche.

In the 16-17 centuries. in Italy appear and instr. K. – for keyboard instruments, for instr. ensemble. At first, these were more or less free arrangements of French chansons, then original compositions in the style of such arrangements. Usually they were a sequence of sections of imitations. warehouse on related to the main theme or new themes (often designated as “Allegro”) with sections of a homophonic warehouse wedged between them (often designated as “Adagio”). Franz. wok. K. and their processing were called canzon (alla) francese in Italy, in contrast to Italian. wok. K. – canzona da sonar. K. were often published in tablature, scores, voices; the latter allowed the possibility of performance by the ensemble and (after appropriate processing) on ​​the organ. Among the Italian the authors of the canzones are M. A. Cavazzoni, who own the earliest examples of instr. K. (Recerchari, motetti, canzoni, Venice, 1523), A. Gabrieli, C. Merulo, A. Banchieri, J. D. Ronconi, J. Frescobaldi. Frescobaldi often used a fugue presentation in his K., introduced K. for a solo instrument accompanied by a general bass. Through his students I. Ya. Froberger and I. K. Kerl, K. penetrated into Germany, where works in this genre were written, among others, by D. Buxtehude and J. S. Bach (BWV 588). OK. 1600 in K. for the ensemble, multi-choir becomes increasingly important, which creates the prerequisites for the appearance of the concerto grosso. K. for keyboard instruments in the 17th century. became close to richercar, fantasy and capriccio and gradually turned into a fugue; K.’s development for a solo instrument accompanied by a general bass led to the emergence of the sonata. From con. 18th century name K. goes out of use; in the 19th century it is sometimes used as a designation for a wok. and instr. lyric pieces (K. “Voi che sapete” from W. A. ​​Mozart’s opera “The Marriage of Figaro”, slow part of the 4th symphony by P. I. Tchaikovsky (in modo di canzone)).

References: Protopopov Vl., Richerkar and canzona in the 2th-1972th centuries and their evolution, in: Questions of musical form, no. XNUMX, M., XNUMX.

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