Runes are epic folk songs of the Karelians, Finns, Estonians and other peoples of the Baltic-Finnish language group (Vod, Izhora). R. is also called Nar. songs diff. genres included by E. Lönrot in Kalevala. Dep. song plots arose in ancient times, reflecting certain aspects of spiritual and material culture, societies. relations of the primitive communal system; R. genetically associated with archaic cosmogonic. myths. The most famous heroes of the Karelians. R. – Väinämöinen, Ilmarinen, the daring warrior Lemminkäinen and the shepherd Kullervo. The epics “Kalevala” and “Kalevipoeg” were compiled from R.. For runic. songs are characterized by quantitative versification, four-foot trochaic, alliteration; their poetics is characterized by an abundance of parallel verses, metaphors and hyperbole, as well as the use of anaphoric. and lexic. repetitions. The composition is inherent in fabulously metaphorical. trinity of actions, slowing down the development of the plot.
Karelian melodic. R., as a rule, is recitative, in the volume of fifths or fourths; music the composition is often based on the alternation of 2 diatonic. chants. R. were performed in one voice – solo or alternately by two rune singers, sitting opposite each other, holding hands. Sometimes singing was accompanied by playing the kantele. Est. runic. songs were performed mostly by women, without instr. escorts. Famous performers of R. in the 19-20 centuries. were Karelians. storytellers Perttunen, M. Malinen, M. Remshu and others, as well as Fin. storytellers Y. Kainulainen, Paraske Larin.