Academy |
Music Terms

Academy |

Dictionary categories
terms and concepts

1) The name of many scientific institutions, about-in and educational institutions. The word “A.” comes from the mythic name. the hero Akadem (Akadnmos), in honor of whom the area near Athens was named, where in the 4th century BC. e. Plato lectured to his students. In Italy, the first A. arose in the 2nd half. 15th century as free societies, independent of the mountains. and church. authorities, uniting philosophers, scientists, poets, musicians, noble and enlightened amateurs and setting as their goal the promotion and development of sciences and arts. They enjoyed the material support of their members (most of which belonged to aristocratic circles) and were under the patronage of the princely and ducal courts. One of these associations was founded in 1470 at the court of Duke Lorenzo Medici in Florence and named an academy in honor of the ancient Greek. philosophical school of Plato. In the 16-17 centuries. A. became widespread in Italy (there were St. 1000 A.) and, according to contemporaries, interest in them reached a “violent passion.” Scientific disputes, concerts, music. and poetic. competitions were the basis of A.’s activity. Their role in establishing secular culture was very great. A. contributed to the spread of humanistic. ideas, the formation of new arts. style.

There were two types of A.:

a) learned societies, mixed in composition of members, in the activities of which, along with disputes, lit. music-making occupied a large place in readings. Such A. were in Venice – A. Pellegrina (founded 1550), in Florence – A. della Crusca (founded 1582), in Bologna – A. della Galati (founded 1588) and A. dei Concordi (founded 1615 ) and in many other cities. The most famous is the Roman A. dell’Arcadia (founded in 1692), which united noble aristocrats, scientists, poets, and musicians. Its members (“shepherd’s bmi”) were many. prominent Italians. musicians hiding behind poetic pseudonyms: for example, A. Scarlatti was called Terpander, A. Corelli – Arcimello, B. Pasquini – Protico, etc. Meetings of A. (festivities according to ancient models, poetic and musical competitions, etc.) took place in the bosom of nature. Here the members of A. rested from the official court. ceremonies; turning to naive pastorality, they expressed this desire for naturalness, merging with nature;

b) organizations uniting prof. musicians and music lovers. The activities of these A. was aimed at the development and study of muses. lawsuit. They organized public and private concerts, engaged in research in the field of history and theory of music, music. acoustics, founded the music. educational institutions staged opera performances (for example, in A. degli Invaghiti in Mantua in 1607 the first performance of Monteverdi’s opera Orpheus took place). The most famous academy of this type was the Bologna Philharmonic Academy (founded in 1666). In order to be accepted as a member, it was necessary to endure the most difficult music-theoretical. tests. Members of this A. were Italian. and foreign composers: J. Bassani, J. Torelli, A. Corelli, J. B. Martini, W. A. ​​Mozart, J. Myslivechek, M. S. Berezovsky, E. I. Fomin, and others. The Florentine camerata (founded in 1580 by the patron of arts J. Bardi) was close to the nature of the activity, the appearance of the opera is associated with a cut. In France, the Academy of Poetry and Music (Académie de poysie et de musique) became famous. in 1570 in Paris as a poet, lute player and comp. J. A. Baiff.

2) In the 18th – 1st third of the 19th centuries. in Italy and other Western-European. countries, the name of the author’s concerts, arranged by composers, as well as musical-performing public meetings (concerts), to-rye organized by the commonwealth of music lovers. In Russia, this kind of A. began to appear at the end of the 18th century, the first – in 1790 in St. Petersburg. A little later, the Muses was organized in Moscow. A. (for the nobles), her foreman was HM Karamzin. In 1828 in St. Petersburg, the director of the Pridv. singing chapel F. P. Lvov osn. Muses. A. with the aim of “a pleasant pastime of free time and success in education and the improvement of musical tastes.” As contemporaries say, indeed. the members of this A. were exclusively music lovers.

3) The name of some modern ones, ch. arr. higher, musical educational institutions, for example: Royal A. Music in London, A. Music and Stage. art-va in Vienna, Salzburg, National Academy “Santa Cecilia” in Rome, Mus. A. (conservatory) in Belgrade, as well as some opera t-ditch (National A. Music and Dance – the official name of the Parisian t-ra “Grand Opera”), decomp. scientific (for example, State A. Artistic Sciences in Moscow, State Academy of Arts, 1921-32), conc. and other institutions (A. gramophone records named after Ch. Cro, A. dance in Paris, etc.).

Sources: Della Torre A., Storia dell’Accademia Platonica di Florence, Florence, 1902; Maylender M., History of the Italian Academy, v. 1-5, Bologna, 1926-30; Walker DP, Musical Humanism in the 16th and Early 17th Centuries, “MR,” 1941, II, 1942, III (in “The Musical Humanism,” in “The Works of the Music Science Society, No. 5, Kassel, 1949); ; Yates Fr. A., The French Academy in the 16th cent., University of London, Warburg Inst., «Studies», XV, L.,

I. M. Yampolsky

Leave a Reply