Greek morpn, lat. forma – appearance, image, outlines, appearance, beauty; German Form, French form, ital. form, eng. shape, shape
I. The meaning of the term. Etymology II. Form and content. General principles of shaping III. Musical forms before 1600 IV. Polyphonic musical forms V. Homophonic musical forms of modern times VI. Musical forms of the 20th century VII. Teachings about musical forms
I. The meaning of the term. Etymology. The term F. m.” applied in several ways. values: 1) composition type; def. compositional plan (more precisely, “form-scheme”, according to B.V. Asafiev) muses. works (“form of composition”, according to P. I. Tchaikovsky; for example, rundo, fugue, motet, ballata; partly approaches the concept of genre, i.e., type of music); 2) music. the embodiment of content (a holistic organization of melodic motifs, harmony, meter, polyphonic fabric, timbres, and other elements of music). In addition to these two main meanings of the term “F. m.” (musical and aesthetic-philosophical) there are others; 3) individually unique sound image of muses. a piece (a specific sound realization of its intention inherent only in this work; something that distinguishes, for example, one sonata form from all others; in contrast to the form-type, it is achieved by a thematic basis that is not repeated in other works and its individual development; outside of scientific abstractions, in live music there is only individual F. m.); 4) aesthetic. order in music compositions (“harmony” of its parts and components), providing aesthetic. the dignity of the music. compositions (the value aspect of its integral structure; “forme means beauty…”, according to M. I. Glinka); the positive value quality of the concept of F. m. is found in the opposition: “form” – “formlessness” (“deformation” – a distortion of the form; what has no form is aesthetically flawed, ugly); 5) one of the three main. sections of applied music-theoretical. science (along with harmony and counterpoint), the subject of which is the study of F. m. Sometimes music. form is also called: the structure of the muses. prod. (its structure), smaller than all products, relatively complete fragments of music. compositions are parts of a form or components of music. op., as well as their appearance as a whole, structure (for example, modal formations, cadences, developments – “form of a sentence”, a period as a “form”; “random harmonious forms” – P.I. Tchaikovsky; “some a form, let’s say, a type of cadence” – G. A. Laroche; “On certain forms of modern music” – V. V. Stasov). Etymologically, Latin forma – lexical. tracing paper from Greek morgn, including, except for the main. meanings “appearance”, the idea of a “beautiful” appearance (in Euripides eris morpas; – a dispute between goddesses about a beautiful appearance). Lat. the word forma – appearance, figure, image, appearance, appearance, beauty (for example, in Cicero, forma muliebris – female beauty). Related words: formose – slender, graceful, beautiful; formosulos – pretty; rum. frumos and Portuguese. formoso – beautiful, beautiful (Ovid has “formosum anni tempus” – “beautiful season”, that is, spring). (See Stolovich L. N., 1966.)
II. Form and content. General principles of shaping. The concept of “form” can be a correlate in decomp. pairs: form and matter, form and material (in relation to music, in one interpretation, the material is its physical side, the form is the relationship between the sounding elements, as well as everything that is built from them; in another interpretation, the material is the components of the composition – melodic, harmonic formations, timbre finds, etc., and form – the harmonious order of what is built from this material), form and content, form and formlessness. Main terminology matters. a pair of form – content (as a general philosophical category, the concept of “content” was introduced by G. V. F. Hegel, who interpreted it in the context of the interdependence of matter and form, and the content as a category includes both, in a removed form. Hegel , 1971, pp. 83-84). In the Marxist theory of art, form (including F. m.) is considered in this pair of categories, where the content is understood as a reflection of reality.
The content of the music – ext. the spiritual aspect of the work; what the music expresses. Center. music concepts. content – music. idea (sensually embodied musical thought), muz. an image (a holistically expressed character that opens directly to the musical feeling, like a “picture”, an image, as well as a musical depiction of feelings and mental states). The content of the claim is imbued with a desire for the lofty, the great (“A real artist … must strive and burn for the broadest great goals,” a letter from P. I. Tchaikovsky to A. I. Alferaki dated August 1, 8). The most important aspect of music content – beauty, beautiful, aesthetic. ideal, callistic component of music as an aesthetic. phenomena. In Marxist aesthetics, beauty is interpreted from the standpoint of societies. human practice as aesthetic. the ideal is a sensually contemplated image of the universal realization of human freedom (L. N. Stolovich, 1891; S. Goldentricht, 1956, p. 1967; also Yu. B. Borev, 362, p. 1975-47). In addition, the composition of the muses. content may include non-musical images, as well as certain genres of music. works include off-music. elements – text images in wok. music (almost all genres, including opera), stage. actions embodied in the theater. music. For the completeness of art. the development of both sides is necessary for a work – both an ideologically rich sensually impressive, exciting content, and an ideally developed art. forms. The lack of one or the other adversely affects the aesthetic. the merits of the work.
Form in music (in the aesthetic and philosophical sense) is the sound realization of content with the help of a system of sound elements, means, relationships, i.e., how (and by what) the content of music is expressed. More precisely, F. m. (in this sense) is stylistic. and a genre-determined complex of elements of music (for example, for a hymn – designed for the mass perception of celebrations; the simplicity and lapidarity of a melody-song intended to be performed by a choir with the support of an orchestra), defin. their combination and interaction (chosen character of rhythmic movement, tonal-harmonious fabrics, dynamics of shaping, etc.), holistic organization, defined. music technique. compositions (the most important purpose of technology is the establishment of “coherence”, perfection, beauty in musical composition). Everything will be expressed. the means of music, covered by the generalizing concepts of “style” and “technique”, are projected onto a holistic phenomenon – a specific music. composition, on F. m.
Form and content exist in an inseparable unity. There is not even the smallest detail of the muses. content, which would not necessarily be expressed by one or another combination of expresses. means (for example, the subtlest, inexpressible words express the shades of the sound of a chord, depending on the specific location of its tones or on the timbres chosen for each of them). And vice versa, there is no such, even the most “abstract” technical. method, which would not serve as an expression of c.-l, from the components of the content (for example, the effect of successive extension of the canon interval in each variation, not directly perceived by the ear in each variation, the number of which is divisible by three without a remainder, in the “Goldberg Variations” J. S. Bach not only organizes the variational cycle as a whole, but also enters into the idea of the inner spiritual aspect of the work). The inseparability of form and content in music is clearly seen when comparing arrangements of the same melody by different composers (cf., for example, The Persian Choir from the opera Ruslan and Lyudmila by Glinka and I. Strauss’s march written to the same melody-theme) or in variations (for example, I. Brahms’s B-dur piano variations, the theme of which belongs to G. F. Handel, and Brahms’ music sounds in the first variation). At the same time, in the unity of form and content, content is the leading, dynamically mobile factor; he has a decisive role in this unity. When implementing the new content, a partial discrepancy between form and content may arise, when the new content cannot fully develop within the framework of the old form (such a contradiction is formed, for example, during the mechanical use of baroque rhythmic techniques and polyphonic forms to develop a 12-tone melodic thematism in contemporary music). The contradiction is resolved by bringing the form in line with the new content, while defining. elements of the old form die off. The unity of F. m. and content makes possible the mutual projection of one onto the other in the mind of a musician; however, such a frequently occurring transfer of the properties of content to form (or vice versa), associated with the ability of the perceiver to “read” figurative content in a combination of elements of form and think it in terms of F. m., does not mean the identity of form and content.
Music. lawsuit, like others. types of art-va, is a reflection of reality in all its structural layers, due to evolution. stages of its development from elementary lower forms to higher ones. Since music is a unity of content and form, reality is reflected both by its content and its form. In the musical-beautiful as the “truth” of music, aesthetic-value attributes and inorganic are combined. world (measure, proportionality, proportionality, symmetry of parts, in general, the connection and harmony of relations; cosmological. the concept of reflection of reality by music is the most ancient, coming from the Pythagoreans and Plato through Boethius, J. Carlino, I. Kepler and M. Mersenne to the present; cm. Kayser H., 1938, 1943, 1950; Losev A. F., 1963-80; Losev, Shestakov V. P., 1965), and the world of living beings (“breathing” and warmth of living intonation, the concept of simulating the life cycle of muses. development in the form of the birth of music. thought, its growth, rise, reaching the top and completion, respectively. interpretation of music time as the time of the “life cycle” of music. “organism”; the idea of content as an image and form as a living, integral organism), and specifically human – historical. and social – the spiritual world (implication of the associative-spiritual subtext that animates sound structures, orientation to the ethical. and aesthetic ideal, the embodiment of the spiritual freedom of man, historical. and social determinism of both the figurative and ideological content of music, and F. m.; “A musical form as a socially determined phenomenon is first of all known as a form … of the social discovery of music in the process of intonation” – Asafiev B. V., 1963, p. 21). Merging into a single quality of beauty, all layers of content function, i.e. o., as a reflection of reality in the form of a transmission of a second, “humanized” nature. Musical Op., Artistically reflecting the historical. and socially determined reality through the ideal of beauty as a criterion for its aesthetic. evaluation, and therefore turns out to be the way we know it – “objectified” beauty, a work of art. However, the reflection of reality in the categories of form and content is not only the transfer of the given reality into music (reflection of reality in art would then only be a duplication of what exists without it). As human consciousness “not only reflects the objective world, but also creates it” (Lenin V. I., PSS, 5 ed., t. 29, p. 194), as well as art, music is a transformative, creative sphere. human activity, the area of creating new realities (spiritual, aesthetic, artistic. values) that do not exist in the reflected object in this view. Hence the importance for art (as a form of reflection of reality) of such concepts as genius, talent, creativity, as well as the struggle against obsolete, backward forms, for the creation of new ones, which is manifested both in the content of music and in F. м. Therefore F. м. always ideological e. bears a seal. worldview), although b. h it is expressed without direct verbal politico-ideological. formulations, and in non-program instr. music – generally without k.-l. logical-conceptual forms. Reflection in music socio-historical. practice is associated with a radical processing of the displayed material. The transformation can be so significant that neither the musical-figurative content nor F. м. may not resemble the reflected realities. A common opinion is that in the work of Stravinsky, one of the most prominent exponents of the modern. reality in its contradictions, allegedly did not receive a sufficiently clear reflection of the reality of the 20th century, is based on naturalistic, mechanical. understanding the category of “reflection”, on the misunderstanding of the role in the arts. reflecting the conversion factor. Analysis of the transformation of the reflected object in the process of creating art. works given by V. AND.
The most general principles of form-building, which concern any style (and not a specific classical style, for example, the Viennese classics of the Baroque period), characterize F. m. as any form and, naturally, are therefore extremely generalized. Such most general principles of any F. m. characterize the deep essence of music as a type of thinking (in sound images). Hence the far-reaching analogies with other types of thinking (first of all, logically conceptual, which would seem to be completely alien in relation to art, music). The very posing of the question of these most general principles of F. m. European music culture of the 20th century (Such a position could not exist either in the Ancient World, when music – “melos” – was conceived in unity with verse and dance, or in Western European music until 1600, i.e. until instr. music became an independent category musical thinking, and only for the thinking of the 20th century it became impossible to confine ourselves to posing the question of the formation of a given era only).
The general principles of any F. m. suggest in each culture the conditionality of one or another type of content by the nature of the muses. lawsuit in general, his istorich. determinism in connection with a specific social role, traditions, racial and national. originality. Any F. m. is an expression of muses. thoughts; hence the fundamental connection between F. m. and the categories of music. rhetoric (see further in section V; see also Melody). Thought can be either autonomous-musical (especially in the many-headed European music of modern times), or connected with the text, dance. (or marching) movement. Any music. the idea is expressed within the framework of the definition. intonation building, music-express. sound material (rhythmic, pitch, timbre, etc.). To become a means of expressing music. thoughts, intonation The material of FM is organized primarily on the basis of an elementary distinction: repetition versus non-repetition (in this sense, FM as a determinant arrangement of sound elements in the temporal unfolding of thought is a close-up rhythm); different F. m. in this respect – different types of repetition. Finally, F. m. (although to an unequal degree) is the refinement, the perfection of the expression of muses. thoughts (aesthetic aspect of F. m.).
III. Musical forms before 1600. The problem of studying the early history of musical music is complicated by the evolution of the essence of the phenomenon implied by the concept of music. Music in the sense of the art of L. Beethoven, F. Chopin, P. I. Tchaikovsky, A. N. Scriabin, together with its inherent F. m., did not exist at all in the Ancient world; in the 4th c. in Augustine’s treatise “De musica libri sex” b. h. explanation of music, defined as scientia bene modulandi – lit. “the science of modulating well” or “knowledge of the correct formation” consists in expounding the doctrine of meter, rhythm, verse, stops and numbers (F. m. in the modern sense is not discussed here at all).
Initial The source of F. m. is primarily in rhythm (“In the beginning there was rhythm” – X. Bülow), which apparently arises on the basis of a regular meter, directly transferred to music from a variety of life phenomena – pulse, breathing, step, rhythm of processions , labor processes, games, etc. (see Ivanov-Boretsky M.V., 1925; Kharlap M.G., 1972), and in the aestheticization of “natural” rhythms. From the original the connection between speech and singing (“Speaking and singing was at first one thing” – Lvov HA, 1955, p. 38) the most fundamental F. m. (“F. m. number one”) occurred – a song, a song form that combined also a purely poetic, verse form. The predominant features of the song form: an explicit (or residual) connection with the verse, stanza, evenly rhythmic. (coming from the feet) the basis of the line, the combination of lines into stanzas, the system of rhyme-cadences, the tendency towards equality of large constructions (in particular – towards squareness of the 4 + 4 type); in addition, often (in more developed song f. m.) the presence in f. m. of two stages – outlining and developing-concluding. Muses. an example of one of the oldest examples of song music is the Table Seikila (1st century AD (?)), see Art. Ancient Greek modes, column 306; see also whale. melody (1st millennium BC (?)):
Undoubtedly, the origin and origin. the development of the song form in the folklore of all peoples. The difference between P. m. songs comes from different conditions of existence of the genre (respectively, one or another direct life purpose of the song) and a variety of metric., Rhythmic. and structural features of poetry, rhythmic. formulas in dance genres (later, 120 rhythmic formulas by the 13th-century Indian theorist Sharngadeva). Connected with this is the general significance of “genre rhythm” as the primary factor in shaping—characteristic. sign defined. genre (especially dance, march), repeated rhythmic. formulas as quasi-thematic. (motive) factor F. m.
Wed-century. European F. m. are divided into two large groups that differ in many respects sharply – monodic f. m. and polyphonic (predominantly polyphonic; see section IV).
F. m. monodies are represented primarily by Gregorian chant (see Gregorian chant). Its genre features are associated with a cult, with the defining meaning of the text and a specific purpose. Liturgical music. everyday life distinguishes from music in later Europe. sense applied (“functional”) character. Muses. the material has an impersonal, non-individual character (melodic turns can be transferred from one melody to another; the lack of authorship of melodies is indicative). In accordance with the ideological installations of the church for monodich. F. m. is typical of the dominance of words over music. This determines the freedom of meter and rhythm, which depend on express. pronunciation of the text, and the characteristic “softness” of the contours of F. M., as if devoid of a center of gravity, its subordination to the structure of the verbal text, in connection with which the concepts of F. M. and genre in relation to monodic. music are very close in meaning. The oldest monodic. F. m. belong to the beginning. 1st millennium. Among the Byzantine musical instruments (genres), the most important are the ode (song), psalm, troparion, hymn, kontakion, and canon (see Byzantine music). They are characterized by elaboration (which, as in other similar cases, indicates a developed professional composing culture). Sample of Byzantine F. m .:
Anonymous. Canon 19, Ode 9 (III plagal mode).
Later, this Byzantine F. m. received the name. “bar”.
The core of Western European monodic phrasing is psalmodia, a recitative performance of psalms based on psalm tones. As part of the psalmody around the 4th century. three main psalmodic are recorded. F. m. – responsory (preferably after readings), antiphon and the psalm itself (psalmus in directum; without including the responsor and antiphonal forms). For an example of the Psalm F. m., see Art. Medieval frets. Psalmodic. F. m. reveals a clear, albeit still distant, similarity with a period of two sentences (see Full cadence). Such monodic. F. m., like a litany, a hymn, a versicule, a magnificat, as well as a sequence, prose, and tropes, arose later. Some F. m. were part of the officium (church. services of the day, outside the mass) – a hymn, a psalm with an antiphon, a responsor, a magnificat (besides them, the vespers, invitatorium, nocturne, canticle with an antiphon) are included in the official. See Gagnepain B., 1968, 10; see also art. Church music.
Higher, monumental monodich. F. m. – mass (mass). The current developed FM of the Mass forms a grandiose cycle, which is based on the succession of parts of the ordinary (ordinarium missae – a group of constant chants of the Mass, independent of the day of the church year) and propria (proprium missae – variables) strictly regulated by the cult-everyday genre purpose. hymns dedicated to this day of the year).
The general scheme of the form of the Roman Mass (Roman numerals indicate the traditional division of the form of the Mass into 4 large sections)
The philosophies developed in the ancient Gregorian Mass retained their significance in one form or another for subsequent times, right up to the 20th century. Forms of parts of the ordinary: Kyrie eleison is three-part (which has a symbolic meaning), and each exclamation is also made three times (structure options are aaabbbece or aaa bbb a 1 a1 a1; aba ede efe1; aba cbc dae). Lowercase P. m. Gloria quite consistently uses one of the most important principles of motive-thematic. structures: repetition of words – repetition of music (in 18 parts of Gloria repetition of the words Domine, Qui tollis, tu solus). P. m. Gloria (in one of the options):
Later (in 1014), Credo, which became part of the Roman Mass, was built as a lowercase F. m., akin to Gloria. P. m. Sanestus is also built according to the text – it has 2 parts, the second of them is most often – ut supra (= da capo), according to the repetition of the words Hosanna m excelsis. Agnus Dei, due to the structure of the text, is tripartite: aab, abc or aaa. An example of F. m. monodich. for the Gregorian Mass, see column 883.
F. m. Gregorian melodies – not abstract, separable from the genre of pure music. construction, but the structure determined by the text and genre (text-musical form).
Typological parallel to F. m. Western-Europe. church monodic. music – other Russian. F. m. The analogy between them concerns the aesthetic. prerequisites for F. m., similarities in genre and content, as well as music. elements (rhythm, melodic lines, correlation between text and music). The decipherable samples that have come down to us from other Russian. music is contained in manuscripts of the 17th and 18th centuries, but its musical instruments are undoubtedly of the most ancient origin. The genre side of these F. m. is determined by the cult purpose of Op. and text. The largest segmentation of genres and F. m. according to the types of services: Mass, Matins, Vespers; Compline, Midnight Office, Hours; the All-Night Vigil is the union of Great Vespers with Matins (however, the non-musical beginning was the bonding factor of F. m. here). Generalized textual genres and philosophies—stichera, troparion, kontakion, antiphon, theotokion (dogmatist), litanies—show typological similarities with similar Byzantine philosophies; the composite F. m. is also a canon (see Canon (2)). In addition to them, a special group is made up of concrete-textual genres (and, correspondingly, f. m.): blessed, “Every breath”, “It is worthy to eat”, “Quiet light”, sedate, Cherubic. They are original genres and F. m., like texts-genres-forms in Western Europe. music – Kyrie, Gloria, Te Deum, Magnificat. The fusion of the concept of P. m. with the text (and with the genre) is one of the characteristic. principles of ancient F. m.; the text, in particular its structure, is included in the concept of F. M. (F. M. follows the division of the text into lines).
Gregorian Mass din Feriis per annum” (the frets are indicated in Roman numerals).
In many cases, the basis (material) F. m. chants (see Metallov V., 1899, pp. 50-92), and the method of their use is variance (in the free variance of the chants structure of other Russian melodies, one of the differences between their F. m. European chorale, for which a tendency towards rational structure alignment is characteristic). The complex of tunes is thematic. the basis of the general composition of F. m. In large compositions, the general contours of F. m. composition (non-musical) functions: beginning – middle – end. The diverse types of F. m. are grouped around the main. contrasting types of F. m. – chorus and through. Chorus F. m. are based on the diverse use of the pair: verse – refrain (refrains can be updated). An example of a refrain form (triple, that is, with three different refrains) is the melody of a large znamenny chant “Bless, my soul, the Lord” (Obikhod, part 1, Vespers). F. m. consists of the sequence “line – chorus” (S-P, S-P, S-P, etc.) with the interaction of repetitions and non-repetition in the text, repetitions and non-repetition in the melody. Cross-cutting F. m. are sometimes characterized by a clear desire to avoid the typical Western European. music of rationally constructive methods of constructing musical instruments, exact repetitions, and reprises; in the most developed F, m. of this type, the structure is asymmetric (on the basis of the radical non-squareness), infinity of soaring prevails; the principle of F. m. is unlimited. linearity. The constructive basis of F. m. in through forms is the division into a number of parts-lines in connection with the text. Samples of large cross-cutting forms are 11 gospel sticheras by Fyodor Krestyanin (16th century). For analyzes of their F. m., performed by M. V. Brazhnikov, see his book: “Fyodor Krestyanin”, 1974, p. 156-221. See also “Analysis of Musical Works”, 1977, p. 84-94.
The secular music of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance developed a number of genres and musical instruments, also based on the interaction of word and melody. These are various types of songs and dances. F. m .: ballad, ballata, villancico, virele, canzo (canzo), la, rondo, rotrueng, estampi, etc. (see Davison A., Apel W., 1974, NoNo 18-24). Some of them are perfectly poetic. form, which is such an important element of F. m., that outside the poetic. text, it loses its structure. The essence of such F. m. is in the interaction of textual and musical repetition. For example, the rondo form (here 8 lines):
Diagram of an 8-line rondo: Line numbers: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Poems (rondo): AB c A de AB (A, B are refrains) Music (and rhymes): abaaabab
G. de Macho. 1st rondo “Doulz viaire”.
Initial P. m.’s dependence on word and movement persisted until the 16th and 17th centuries, but the process of their gradual release, the crystallization of structurally defined types of composition, has been observed since the late Middle Ages, first in secular genres, then in church genres (for example, imitation and canonical F. m. in masses, motets of the 15th-16th centuries).
A new powerful source of shaping was the emergence and rise of polyphony as a full-fledged type of muses. presentation (see Organum). With the establishment of polyphony in Fm, a new dimension of music was born—the previously unheard-of “vertical” aspect of Fm.
Having established itself in Europe music in the 9th century, polyphony gradually turned into the main. type of music fabrics, marking the transition of muses. thinking to a new level. Within the framework of polyphony, a new, polyphonic, appeared. the letter, under the sign of which the majority of the Renaissance f. m. was formed (see section IV). polyphony and polyphony. writing created a wealth of musical forms (and genres) of the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance, primarily the mass, motet, and madrigal, as well as such musical forms as the company, clause, conduct, goket, various types of secular song and dance forms, diferencias (and other variational f. m.), quadlibet (and similar genres-forms), instrumental canzona, ricercar, fantasy, capriccio, tiento, instrumental prelude f. m. – preamble, intonation (VI), toccata (pl. from named F. m., see Davison A., Apel W., 1974). Gradually, but steadily improving art F. m. – G. Dufay, Josquin Despres, A. Willart, O. Lasso, Palestrina. Some of them (for example, Palestrina) apply the principle of structural development in the construction of F. m., which is expressed in the growth of structural complexity by the end of production. (but no dynamic effects). For example, the madrigal of Palestrina “Amor” (in the collection “Palestrina. Choral Music”, L., 15) is constructed in such a way that the 16st line is drawn up as a correct fugato, in the next five imitation becomes more and more free, the 1973th is sustained in a chordal warehouse, and canonically beginning the last one with its imitation resembles a structural reprise. Similar ideas of F. m. are consistently carried out in Palestrina’s motets (in multi-choir F. m., the rhythm of antiphonal introductions also obeys the principle of structural development).
IV. polyphonic musical forms. Polyphonic F. m. are distinguished by the addition to the three main. aspects of F. m. (genre, text – in wok. music and horizontal) one more – vertical (interaction and system of repetition between different, simultaneously sounding voices). Apparently, polyphony existed at all times (“… when the strings emit one tune, and the poet composed another melody, when they achieve consonances and counter-sounds …” – Plato, “Laws”, 812d; cf. also Pseudo-Plutarch, “On Music ”, 19), but it was not a factor of the muses. thinking and shaping. A particularly important role in the development of the F. m. caused by it belongs to Western European polyphony (from the 9th century), which gave the vertical aspect the value of equal rights with the radical horizontal (see Polyphony), which led to the formation of a special new kind of F. m. – polyphonic. Aesthetically and psychologically polyphonic. F. m. on the joint sound of two (or several) components of music. thoughts and require correspondence. perception. Thus, the occurrence of polyphonic. F. m. reflects the development of a new aspect of music. Thanks to this music. lawsuit acquired new aesthetics. values, without which his great achievements would not have been possible, including in Op. homoph. warehouse (in the music of Palestrina, J. S. Bach, B. A. Mozart, L. Beethoven, P. I. Tchaikovsky, S. S. Prokofiev). See homophony.
The main channels of the formation and flourishing of polyphonic. F. m. are laid by the development of specific polyphonic. writing techniques and go in the direction of the emergence and strengthening of the independence and contrast of voices, their thematic. elaboration (thematic differentiation, thematic development not only horizontally, but also vertically, tendencies towards through thematization), the addition of specific polyphonic. F. m. (not reducible to the type of polyphonically expounded general F. m. – song, dance, etc.). From various beginnings of polyphonic. F. m. and polygonal. letters (bourdon, various types of heterophony, duplication-seconds, ostinato, imitation and canonical, responsorial and antiphonal structures) historically, the starting point for their composition was paraphony, the parallel conduct of a counterpunctuated voice, exactly duplicating the given main one – vox (cantus) principalis (see . Organum), cantus firmus (“statutory melody”). First of all, it is the earliest of the types of organum – the so-called. parallel (9th-10th centuries), as well as later gimel, foburdon. Aspect polyphonic. F. m. here is a functional division of Ch. voice (in later terms soggetto, “Subjectum oder Thema” – Walther JG, 1955, S. 183, “theme”) and the opposition that opposes it, and the sense of interaction between them at the same time anticipates the vertical aspect of polyphonic. F. m. (it becomes especially noticeable in the bourdon and indirect, then in the “free” organum, in the “note against note” technique, later called contrapunctus simplex or aequalis), for example, in treatises of the 9th century. “Musica enchiriadis”, “Scholia enchiriadis”. Logically, the next stage of development is associated with the establishment of the actual polyphonic. structures in the form of a contrasting opposition in the simultaneity of two or more. voices (in a melismatic organum), partly using the principle of bourdon, in some types of polyphonic. arrangements and variations on the cantus firmus, in the simple counterpoint of the clauses and early motets of the Paris School, in the polyphonic church songs. and secular genres, etc.
The metrization of polyphony opened up new possibilities for rhythmic. contrasts of voices and, accordingly, gave a new look to polyphonic. F. м. Starting with the rationalist organization of the metrorhythm (modal rhythm, mensural rhythm; see. Modus, Mensural notation) F. м. gradually acquires specificity. for European music is a combination of perfect (further even sophisticated) rationalistic. constructiveness with sublime spirituality and deep emotionality. A major role in the development of new F. м. belonged to the Paris School, then others. France. composers of the 12th-14th centuries. Approx. 1200, in the clauses of the Paris School, the principle of rhythmically ostinato processing of the choral melody, which was the basis of F. м. (with the help of brief rhythmic formulas, anticipating isorhythmic. talea, see Motet; example: clauses (Benedicamusl Domino, cf. Davison A., Apel W., v. 1, p. 24-25). The same technique became the basis for two- and three-part motets of the 13th century. (example: motets of the Paris school Domino fidelium – Domino and Dominator – Esce – Domino, ca. 1225, ibid., p. 25-26). In motets of the 13th century. unfolds the process of thematization of oppositions through dec. kind of repetitions of lines, pitches, rhythmic. figures, even attempts at the same time. connections diff. melodies (cf. мотет «En non Diu! – Quant voi larose espanie – Ejus in oriente “of the Paris School; Parrish K., Ole J., 1975, p. 25-26). Subsequently, strong rhythmic contrasts could lead to sharp polymetry (Rondo B. Cordier “Amans ames”, ca. 1400, see Davison A., Apel W., v. 1, p. 51). Following the rhythmic contrasts, there is a discrepancy in the length of phrases decomp. voices (rudiment of counterpoint structures); the independence of the voices is emphasized by their diversity of texts (moreover, the texts can even be in different languages, for example. Latin in tenor and motetus, French in triplum, see Polyphony, note example in column 351). More than a single repetition of a tenor melody as an ostinato theme in counterpoint with a changing counterposition gives rise to one of the most important polyphonic. F. м. – variations on basso ostinato (for example, in French. motte 13 c. “Hail, noble virgin – the Word of God – the Truth”, cm. Wolf J., 1926, S. 6-8). The use of rhythmostinatal formulas led to the idea of separation and independence of the parameters of pitch and rhythm (in the 1st part of the the mentioned tenor motet “Ejus in oriente”, bars 1-7 and 7-13; in the instrumental tenor motet “In seculum” in the same relation of remetrization of the pitch line during rhythmic ostinato to the formula of the 1st ordo of the 2nd mode, there are two parts of the two-part form; cm. Davison A., Apel W., v. 1, p. 34-35). The pinnacle of this development was isorhythmic. F. м. 14th-15th centuries (Philippe de Vitry, G. de Macho, Y. Ciconia, G. Dufay and others). With an increase in the value of the rhythmic formula from a phrase to an extended melody, a kind of rhythmic pattern arises in the tenor. the theme is talea. Its ostinato performances in the tenor give F. м. isorhythmic. (T. e. isorhythm.) structure (isorhythm – repetition in melodic. voice only deployed rhythmic. formulas, the high-rise content of which changes). To ostinato repetitions can be joined – in the same tenor – repetitions of heights that do not coincide with them – color (color; about isorhythmic. F. м. see Saponov M. A., 1978, p. 23-35, 42-43). After the 16th century (A. Willart) isorhythmic. F. м. disappear and find new life in the 20th century. in the rhythm-mode technique of O. Messiaen (proportional canon in No. 5 of “Twenty Views …”, its beginning, see p. in Art.
In the development of the vertical aspect of polyphonic. F. m. will exclude. the development of repetition in the form of imitation technique and canon, as well as mobile counterpoint, was important. Being subsequently an extensive and diverse department of writing technique and form, imitation (and canon) became the basis of the most specific polyphonic. F. m. Historically, the earliest imitations. canonical F. m. is also associated with ostinato – the use of the so-called. exchange of voices, which is an exact repetition of a two- or three-part construction, but only the melodies that make it up are transmitted from one voice to another (for example, the English rondelle “Nunc sancte nobis spiritus”, 2nd half of the 12th century, see “Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart”, Bd XI, Sp. 885, see also the rondelle “Ave mater domini” from Odington’s De speculatione musice, circa 1300 or 1320, in Coussemaker, “Scriptorum… “, t. 1, p. 247a). The master of the Paris school Perotin (who also uses the technique of exchanging voices) in the Christmas quadruple Viderunt (c. 1200), obviously, consciously already uses continuous imitation – the canon (a fragment that falls on the word “ante” in tenor). The origin of these types of imitations. technology marks a departure from the stiffness of ostinato F. m. On this basis, purely canonical. forms – a company (13-14 centuries; a combination of a canon company and a rondel-exchange of voices is represented by the famous English “Summer Canon”, 13 or 14 centuries), Italian. kachcha (“hunt”, with a hunting or love plot, in form – a two-voice canon with a cont. 3rd voice) and French. shas (also “hunting” – a three-voice canon in unison). The form of the canon is also found in other genres (Machot’s 17th ballad, in the form of shas; Machaud’s 14th rondo “Ma fin est mon commencement”, probably historically the 1st example of a canon canon, not without connection with the meaning of the text: ” My end is my beginning”; 17th le Machaux is a cycle of 12 three-voice canons-shas); thus the canon as a special polyphonic. F. m. is separated from other genres and P. m. The number of voices in the F. m. cases were extremely large; Okegem is credited with the 36-voice canon-monster “Deo gratias” (in which, however, the number of real voices does not exceed 18); the most polyphonic canon (with 24 real voices) belongs to Josquin Despres (in the motet “Qui habitat in adjutorio”). P. m. of the canon were based not only on simple direct imitation (in Dufay’s motet “Inclita maris”, c. 1420-26, apparently, the first proportional canon; in his chanson “Bien veignes vous”, c. 1420- 26, probably the first canon in magnification). OK. 1400 imitations F. m. passed, perhaps through kachcha, into motet – at Ciconia, Dufay; further also in F. m. parts of masses, in chanson; to the 2nd floor. 15th c. the establishment of the principle of end-to-end imitation as the basis of F. m.
The term “canon” (canon), however, had in the 15-16 centuries. special meaning. The author’s remark-saying (Inscriptio), usually deliberately confusing, puzzling, was called canon (“a rule that reveals the will of the composer under the cover of some darkness”, J. Tinktoris, “Diffinitorium musicae”; Coussemaker, “Scriptorum …”, t. 4, 179 b ), indicating how two can be derived from one notated voice (or even more, for example, the entire four-voice mass of P. de la Rue – “Missa o salutaris nostra” – is derived from one notated voice); see cryptic canon. Therefore, all products with a canon-inscription are F. m. with deducible voices (all other F. m. are constructed in such a way that, as a rule, they do not allow such encryption, that is, they are not based on the literally observed “principle of identity”; the term B. V. Asafiev). According to L. Feininger, the types of Dutch canons are: simple (one-dark) direct; complex, or compound (multi-dark) direct; proportional (mensural); linear (single-line; Formalkanon); inversion; elision (Reservatkanon). For more on this, see the book: Feininger L. K., 1937. Similar “inscriptions” are found later in S. Scheidt (“Tabulatura nova”, I, 1624), in J. S. Bach (“Musikalisches Opfer”, 1747).
In the work of a number of masters of the 15th-16th centuries. (Dufay, Okeghem, Obrecht, Josquin Despres, Palestrina, Lasso, etc.) presents a variety of polyphonic. F. m. (strict writing), DOS. on the principles of imitation and contrast, motive development, independence of melodious voices, counterpoint of words and verse lines, ideally soft and exceptionally beautiful harmony (especially in the wok genres of mass and motet).
The addition of Ch. polyphonic forms – fugues – are also marked by a discrepancy between the development of Samui F. m. and, on the other hand, the concept and term. In terms of meaning, the word “fugue” (“running”; Italian consequenza) is related to the words “hunting”, “race”, and initially (from the 14th century) the term was used in a similar meaning, indicating the canon (also in inscription canons: “ fuga in diatessaron” and others). Tinctoris defines fugue as “identity of voices”. The use of the term “fugue” in the meaning of “canon” persisted until the 17th and 18th centuries; a remnant of this practice can be considered the term “fuga canonica” – “canonical. fugue”. An example of a fugue as a canon from several departments in instr. music – “Fuge” for 4 string instruments (“violins”) from “Musica Teusch” by X. Gerle (1532, see Wasielewski WJ v., 1878, Musikbeilage, S. 41-42). All R. 16th century (Tsarlino, 1558), the concept of fugue is split into fuga legate (“coherent fugue”, canon; later also fuga totalis) and fuga sciolta (“divided fugue”; later fuga partialis; succession of imitation-canonical sections, for example, abсd, etc. . P.); the last P. m. is one of the pre-forms of the fugue – a chain of fugato according to the type: abcd; so-called. motet form, where the difference in topics (a, b, c, etc.) is due to a change in text. The essential difference between such a “lowercase” F. m. and a complex fugue is the absence of a combination of topics. In the 17th century fuga sciolta (partialis) passed into the actual fugue (Fuga totalis, also legata, integra became known as the canon in the 17th-18th centuries). A number of other genres and F. m. 16 century. evolved in the direction of the emerging type of fugue form – motet (fugue), ricercar (to which the motet principle of a number of imitation constructions was transferred; probably the closest fugue to F. m.), fantasy, Spanish. tiento, imitative-polyphonic canzone. To add the fugue in instr. music (where there is no previous connecting factor, namely the unity of the text), the tendency to thematic is important. centralization, i.e., to the supremacy of one melodic. the themes (as opposed to vocals. multi-dark) – A. Gabrieli, J. Gabrieli, J. P. Sweelinck (for the predecessors of the fugue, see the book: Protopopov V. V., 1979, p. 3-64).
By the 17th century formed the main relevant to this day polyphonic. F. m. – fugue (of all kinds of structures and types), canon, polyphonic variations (in particular, variations on basso ostinato), polyphonic. (in particular, chorale) arrangements (for example, to a given cantus firmus), polyphonic. cycles, polyphonic preludes, etc. A significant influence on the development of polyphonic F. of this time was exerted by a new major-minor harmonic system (updating the theme, nominating the tonal-modulating factor as the leading factor in F. M.; the development of the homophonic-harmonic type of writing and the corresponding F . m.). In particular, the fugue (and similar polyphonic f. m.) evolved from the predominant modal type of the 17th century. (where modulation is not yet the basis of polyphonic F. m.; for example, in Scheidt’s Tabulatura nova, II, Fuga contraria a 4 Voc.; I, Fantasia a 4 Voc. super lo son ferit o lasso, Fuga quadruplici ) to the tonal (“Bach”) type with tonal contrast in the form of cf. parts (often in parallel mode). Exclude. significance in the history of polyphony. F. m. had the work of J. S. Bach, who breathed new life into them thanks to the establishment of the effectiveness of the resources of the major-minor tonal system for thematism, thematic. development and the process of shaping. Bach gave polyphonic F. m. new classic. appearance, on which, as on the main. type, the subsequent polyphony is consciously or unconsciously oriented (up to P. Hindemith, D. D. Shostakovich, R. K. Shchedrin). Reflecting the general trends of the time and the new techniques found by his predecessors, he far surpassed his contemporaries (including the brilliant G. F. Handel) in the scope, strength and persuasiveness of the assertion of new principles of polyphonic music. F. m.
After J. S. Bach, the dominant position was occupied by homophonic F. m. (see. Homophony). Actually polyphonic. F. m. are sometimes used in a new, sometimes unusual role (the fughetta of the guardsmen in the choir “Sweeter than Honey” from the 1st act of Rimsky-Korsakov’s opera “The Tsar’s Bride”), acquire dramaturgical motives. character; composers refer to them as a special, special expression. means. To a large extent, this is characteristic of polyphonic. F. m. in Russian. music (examples: M. I. Glinka, “Ruslan and Lyudmila”, canon in the scene of stupor from the 1st act; contrasting polyphony in the play “In Central Asia” by Borodin and in the play “Two Jews” from “Pictures at an Exhibition” Mussorgsky; the canon “Enemies” from the 5th scene of the opera “Eugene Onegin” by Tchaikovsky, etc.).
V. Homophonic musical forms of modern times. The onset of the era of the so-called. new time (17-19 centuries) marked a sharp turning point in the development of muses. thinking and F. m. (the emergence of new genres, the dominant importance of secular music, the dominance of the major-minor tonal system). In ideological and aesthetic sphere advanced new methods of art. thinking – an appeal to secular music. content, the assertion of the principle of individualism as a leader, the disclosure of internal. the world of an individual (“the soloist has become the main figure”, “individualization of human thought and feeling” – Asafiev B.V., 1963, p. 321). The rise of the opera to the significance of the central music. genre, and in instr. music – the assertion of the principle of concertation (baroque – the era of “concert style”, in the words of J. Gandshin) is most directly associated. the transfer of the image of an individual person in them and represents the focus of the aesthetic. aspirations of a new era (an aria in an opera, a solo in a concerto, a melody in a homophonic fabric, a heavy measure in a meter, a tonic in a key, a theme in a composition, and the centralization of musical music — multifaceted and growing manifestations of “soloness”, “singularity”, the dominance of one over others in various layers of musical thinking). The tendency that had already manifested itself earlier (for example, in the iso-rhythmic motet of the 14th-15th centuries) towards the autonomy of purely musical principles of shaping in the 16-17 centuries. led to qualities. jump – their independence, most directly revealed in the formation of autonomous instr. music. The principles of pure music. shaping, which became (for the first time in the world history of music) independent of the word and movement, made instr. music at first equal in rights with vocal music (already in the 17th century – in instrumental canzones, sonatas, concertos), and then, moreover, shaping was put into the wok. genres depending on autonomous music. laws of F. m. (from J. S. Bach, Viennese classics, composers of the 19th century). Identification of pure music. the laws of F. m. is one of the pinnacle achievements of world music. cultures that discovered new aesthetic and spiritual values previously unknown in music.
Regarding f. m. The era of the new time is clearly divided into two periods: 1600-1750 (conditionally – baroque, the dominance of the bass general) and 1750-1900 (Viennese classics and romanticism).
Principles of shaping in F. m. Baroque: throughout a one-part form b. hours, the expression of one affect is preserved, therefore F. m. are characterized by the predominance of homogeneous thematicism and the absence of derivative contrast, i.e., the derivation of another topic from this one. Properties in the music of Bach and Handel, majesty is associated with the solidity that comes from here, the massiveness of the parts of the form. This also determines the “terraced” dynamics of V.F. m., using dynamic. contrasts, lack of flexible and dynamic crescendo; idea of production not so much developing as unfolding, as if passing through predetermined stages. In dealing with thematic material affects the strong influence of polyphonic. letters and polyphonic forms. The major-minor tonal system more and more reveals its formative properties (especially in Bach’s time). Chord and tonal changes serve new powers. means of internal movement in F. m. The possibility of repeating material in other keys and a holistic concept of movement by definition. the circle of tonalities creates a new principle of tonal forms (in this sense, tonality is the basis of the F. m. of the new time). In Arensky’s “Guidelines…” (1914, pp. 4 and 53), the term “homophonic forms” is replaced as a synonym by the term “harmonic. forms”, and by harmony we mean tonal harmony. The baroque f.m. (without derivative figurative and thematic contrast) gives the simplest type of construction of f.m. hence the impression of a “circle”), passing through cadenzas on other steps of the tonality, for example:
in major: I — V; VI – III – IV – I in minor: I – V; III – VII – VI – IV – I with a tendency to non-repetition of keys between the tonic at the beginning and at the end, according to the T-DS-T principle.
For example, in concert form (which played in sonatas and baroque concerts, especially with A. Vivaldi, J. S. Bach, Handel, a role similar to the role of sonata form in instrumental cycles of classical-romantic music):
Topic — And — Topic — And — Topic — And — Topic T — D — S — T (I – interlude, – modulation; examples – Bach, 1st movement of the Brandenburg Concertos).
The most widespread musical instruments of the Baroque are homophonic (more precisely, non-fugued) and polyphonic (see Section IV). Main homophonic F. m. baroque:
1) forms of through development (in instr. music, the main type is prelude, in wok. – recitative); samples – J. Frescobaldi, preambles for organ; Handel, clavier suite in d-moll, prelude; Bach, organ toccata in d minor, BWV 565, prelude movement, before fugue;
2) small (simple) forms – bar (reprise and non-reprise; for example, F. Nicolai’s song “Wie schön leuchtet der Morgenstern” (“How wonderfully the morning star shines”, its processing by Bach in the 1st cantata and in others. op.)), two-, three- and many-part forms (an example of the latter is Bach, Mass in h-moll, No14); wok. music often meets the form da capo;
3) composite (complex) forms (combination of small ones) – complex two-, three- and many-part; contrast-composite (for example, the first parts of orchestral overtures by J. S. Bach), the da capo form is especially important (in particular, in Bach);
4) variations and choral adaptations;
5) rondo (in comparison with the rondo of the 13th-15th centuries – a new instrument of F. m. under the same name);
6) old sonata form, one-dark and (in embryo, development) two-dark; each of them is incomplete (two-part) or complete (three-part); for example, in the sonatas of D. Scarlatti; full one-dark sonata form – Bach, Matthew Passion, No 47;
7) concert form (one of the main sources of the future classical sonata form);
8) various types of woks. and instr. cyclic forms (they are also certain musical genres) – Passion, mass (including organ), oratorio, cantata, concerto, sonata, suite, prelude and fugue, overture, special types of forms (Bach, “Musical Offering”, “The Art of the Fugue”), “cycles of cycles” (Bach, “The Well-Tempered Clavier”, French suites);
9) opera. (See “Analysis of Musical Works”, 1977.)
F. m. classical-romantic. period, the concept of to-rykh reflected at the initial stage of the humanistic. European ideas. Enlightenment and rationalism, and in the 19th century. individualistic the ideas of romanticism (“Romanticism is nothing but the apotheosis of personality” – I. S. Turgenev), autonomization and aestheticization of music, are characterized by the highest manifestation of autonomous muses. the laws of shaping, the primacy of the principles of centralized unity and dynamism, the limiting semantic differentiation of F. m., and the relief of the development of its parts. For classic romantic The concept of F. m. is also typical of the selection of the minimum number of optimal types of F. m. (with sharply pronounced differences between them) with an unusually rich and diverse concrete implementation of the same structural types (the principle of diversity in unity), which is similar to the optimality of other parameters F. m. (for example, a strict selection of types of harmonic sequences, types of tonal plan, characteristic textured figures, optimal orchestral compositions, metric structures gravitating towards squareness, methods of motivational development), an optimally intense feeling of experiencing music. time, subtle and correct calculation of temporal proportions. (Of course, within the framework of the 150-year historical period, the differences between the Viennese-classical and romantic concepts of F. m. are also significant.) In some respects, it is possible to establish the dialectical nature of the general concept of development in F. m. (Beethoven’s sonata form) . F. m. combine the expression of high artistic, aesthetic, philosophical ideas with the juicy “earthly” character of the muses. figurativeness (also thematic material that bears the imprint of folk-everyday music, with its typical features of musical material; this applies to the main arr. F. m. of the 19th century).
General logical classical romantic principles. F. m. are a strict and rich embodiment of the norms of any thinking in the field of music, reflected in the definitions. semantic functions of the parts of F. m. Like any thinking, the musical has an object of thought, its material (in the metaphorical sense, a theme). Thinking is expressed in musical-logical. “discussion of the topic” (“Musical form is the result of a “logical discussion” of musical material” – Stravinsky I.F., 1971, p. 227), which, due to the temporal and non-conceptual nature of music as an art, divides F. m. into two logical department – presentation of music. thought and its development (“discussion”). In turn, logical music development. thought consists of its “consideration” and the following “conclusion”; therefore development as a logical stage. The development of F. m. is divided into two subdivisions – the actual development and completion. As a result of the development of the classic F. m. discovers three main. functions of the parts (corresponding to the Asafiev triad initium – motus – terminus, see Asafiev B.V., 1963, pp. 83-84; Bobrovsky V.P., 1978, pp. 21-25) – exposition (exposition of thought), developing (actual development) and final (statement of thought), complexly correlated with each other:
(For example, in a simple three-part form, in sonata form.) In finely differentiated F. m., in addition to the three fundamentals. auxiliary functions of the parts arise – introduction (the function of which branches off from the initial presentation of the topic), transition and conclusion (branching from the function of completion and thereby dividing it into two – affirmation and conclusion of thought). Thus, parts of F. m. have only six functions (cf. Sposobin I. V., 1947, p. 26).
Being a manifestation of the general laws of human thinking, the complex of functions of the parts of F. m. reveals something in common with the functions of the parts of the presentation of thought in the rational-logical sphere of thinking, the corresponding laws of which are expounded in the ancient doctrine of rhetoric (oratory). The functions of the six sections of the classic. rhetoric (Exordium – introduction, Narratio – narration, Propositio – main position, Confutatio – challenging, Confirmatio – statement, Conclusio – conclusion) almost exactly coincide in composition and sequence with the functions of the parts of F. m. (the main functions of F. M. are highlighted. m.):
Exordium – intro Propositio – presentation (main topic) Narratio – development as a transition Confutatio – contrasting part (development, contrasting theme) Confirmation – reprise Conclusio – code (addition)
Rhetoric functions can manifest themselves in different ways. levels (for example, they cover both the sonata exposition and the entire sonata form as a whole). The far-reaching coincidence of the functions of sections in rhetoric and parts of F. m. testifies to the deep unity of decomp. and seemingly distant from each other types of thinking.
Misc. ice elements (sounds, timbres, rhythms, chords” melodic. intonation, melodic line, dynamic. nuances, tempo, agogics, tonal functions, cadences, structure of texture, etc. n.) are muses. material. K F. м. (in a broad sense) belongs to the music. the organization of the material, considered from the side of the expression of muses. content. In the system of music organizations are not all elements of music. material are of equal importance. Profiling aspects of classical-romantic. F. м. – tonality as the basis of the structure of F. м. (cm. Tonality, Mode, Melody), meter, motive structure (see. Motif, Homophony), counterpoint basic. lines (in homof. F. м. usually t. Mr. contour, or main, two-voice: melody + bass), thematicism and harmony. The formative meaning of tonality consists (in addition to the above) in the rallying of a tonal-stable theme by a common attraction to a single tonic (see. diagram A in the example below). The formative meaning of the meter is to create a relationship (metric. symmetry) of small particles F. м. (chap. principle: the 2nd cycle responds to the 1st and creates a two-cycle, the 2nd two-cycle answers the 1st and creates a four-cycle, the 2nd four-cycle answers the 1st and creates an eight-cycle; hence the fundamental importance of squareness for the classical-romantic. F. m.), thereby forming small constructions of F. м. – phrases, sentences, periods, similar sections of middles and reprises within themes; classical the meter also determines the location of cadences of one kind or another and the strength of their final action (semi-conclusion at the end of a sentence, full conclusion at the end of a period). The formative significance of motive (in a larger sense, also thematic) development lies in the fact that large-scale mus. thought is derived from its core. semantic core (usually it is the initial motivic group or, more rarely, the initial motive) through various modified repetitions of its particles (motivational repetitions from other chord sound, from others. steps, etc. harmony, with an interval change in the line, variation in rhythm, in increase or decrease, in circulation, with fragmentation – a particularly active means of motivic development, the possibilities of which extend up to the transformation of the initial motive into others. motives). See Arensky A. C, 1900, p. 57-67; Sopin I. V., 1947, p. 47-51. Motivational development plays in homophonic F. м. about the same role as the repetition of the theme and its particles in polyphonic. F. м. (e.g. in fugue). The formative value of counterpoint in homophonic F. м. manifests itself in the creation of their vertical aspect. Almost homophonic F. м. throughout it is (at least) a two-part combination in the form of extreme voices, obeying the norms of polyphony of this style (the role of polyphony may be more significant). A sample of contour two-voice – V. A. Mozart, symphony in g-moll No 40, minuet, ch. theme. The formative significance of thematism and harmony is manifested in the interrelated contrasts of close-knit arrays of presentation of themes and thematically unstable developmental, connecting, running constructions of one kind or another (also thematically “folding” final and thematically “crystallizing” introductory parts), tonally stable and modulating parts; also in contrasting structurally monolithic constructions of the main themes and more “loose” secondary ones (for example, in sonata forms), respectively, in contrasting different types of tonal stability (for example, the strength of tonal connections in combination with the mobility of harmony in Ch. parts, certainty and unity of tonality combined with its softer structure in the side, reduction to tonic in the coda). If the meter creates F. м.
For diagrams of some of the main classical-romantic musical instruments (from the point of view of the higher factors of their structure; T, D, p are the functional designations of keys, is modulation; straight lines are stable construction, curved lines are unstable) see column 894.
The cumulative effect of the listed main. factors of classical romanticism. F. m. is shown on the example of Andante cantabile of Tchaikovsky’s 5th symphony.
Scheme A: the whole ch. the theme of the 1st part of Andante is based on the tonic D-dur, the first performance of the secondary theme-addition is on the tonic Fis-dur, then both are regulated by the tonic D-dur. Scheme B (chapter theme, cf. with scheme C): another one-bar responds to a one-bar, a more continuous two-bar construction answers the resulting two-bar, a four-bar sentence closed by a cadence is answered by another similar one with a more stable cadence. Scheme B: based on metric. structures (Scheme B) motivic development (a fragment is shown) comes from a one-bar motive and is carried out by repeating it in other harmonies, with a change in melodic. line (a1) and metro rhythm (a2, a3).
Scheme G: contrapuntal. the basis of the F. m., the correct 2-voice connection based on permissions in consoner. interval and contrasts in the movement of voices. Scheme D: interaction thematically. and harmonic. factors forms the F. m. of the work as a whole (the type is a complex three-part form with an episode, with “deviations” from the traditional classical form towards the internal expansion of a large 1st part).
In order for the parts of F. m. to perform their structural functions, they must be built accordingly. For example, the second theme of the Gavotte of Prokofiev’s “Classical Symphony” is perceived even out of context as a typical trio of a complex three-part form; both main themes of the exposition of the 8th fp. Beethoven’s sonatas cannot be represented in reverse order – the main one as a side, and the side one as the main one. Patterns of the structure of parts of F. m., revealing their structural functions, called. types of presentation of music. material (the theory of Sposobina, 1947, pp. 27-39). Ch. There are three types of presentation – exposition, middle and final. The leading sign of the exposition is stability in combination with the activity of movement, which is expressed in thematic. unity (development of one or a few motives), tonal unity (one key with deviations; small modulation at the end, not undermining the stability of the whole), structural unity (sentences, periods, normative cadences, structure 4 + 4, 2 + 2 + 1 + 1 + 2 and similar under the condition of harmonic stability); see Diagram B, bars 9-16. A sign of the median type (also developmental) is instability, fluidity, achieved harmonically. instability (reliance not on T, but on other functions, for example D; the beginning is not with T, avoiding and pushing the tonic, modulation), thematic. fragmentation (selection of parts of the main construction, smaller units than in the main part), structural instability (lack of sentences and periods, sequencing, lack of stable cadences). Conclude. the type of presentation affirms the tonic already achieved by repeated cadences, cadence additions, an organ point on T, deviations towards S, and the cessation of the thematic. development, gradual fragmentation of constructions, reduction of development to maintaining or repeating tonic. chord (example: Mussorgsky, chorus code “Glory to you, the creator of the Almighty” from the opera “Boris Godunov”). Reliance on F. m. folk music as an aesthetic. the installation of the music of the new time, combined with a high degree of development of the structural functions of the F. m. and the types of presentation of music corresponding to them. The material is organized into a coherent system of musical instruments, the extreme points of which are the song (based on the dominance of metric relations) and the sonata form (based on thematic and tonal development). General systematics of the main. types of classical-romantic. F. m.:
1) The starting point of the system of musical instruments (unlike, for example, the high rhythmic instruments of the Renaissance) is the song form directly transferred from everyday music (the main types of structure are the simple two-part and simple three-part forms ab, aba; further in diagrams A), common not only in the wok. genres, but also reflected in instr. miniatures (preludes, etudes by Chopin, Scriabin, small piano pieces by Rachmaninov, Prokofiev). Further growth and complication of F. m., emanating from the form of the couplet nar. songs, are carried out in three ways: by repeating (altered) the same theme, introducing another theme, and internally complicating the parts (growth of the period to a “higher” form, splitting the middle into a structure: move – theme-embryo – return move, autonomization of additions to the role theme-embryos). In these ways, the song form rises to more advanced ones.
2) Couplet (AAA…) and variational (А А1 А2…) forms, osn. on a repeat of the theme.
3) Diff. types of two- and multi-theme composite (“complex”) forms and rondo. The most important of the composite F. m. is the complex three-part ABA (other types are the complex two-part AB, arched or concentric ABBCBA, ABCDCBA; other types are ABC, ABCD, ABCDA). For rondo (AVASA, AVASAVA, ABACADA) the presence of transitional parts between themes is typical; rondo may include sonata elements (see Rondo sonata).
4) Sonata form. One of the sources is its “germination” from a simple two- or three-part form (see, for example, the f-moll prelude from the 2nd volume of Sakha’s Well-Tempered Clavier, the minuet from the Mozart Quartet Es-dur, K.-V 428; the sonata form without development in the 1st part of Andante cantabile of Tchaikovsky’s 5th symphony has a genetic connection with the thematic contrasting simple 3-movement form).
5) On the basis of the contrast of tempo, character, and (often) meter, subject to the unity of conception, the above-mentioned large single-part F. meters are folded into multi-part cyclic and merge into single-part contrast-composite forms (samples of the latter – Ivan Susanin by Glinka, No 12, quartet ; the form of the “Great Viennese Waltz”, for example, the choreographic poem “Waltz” by Ravel). In addition to the listed typified musical forms, there are mixed and individualized free forms, most often associated with a special idea, possibly programmatic (F. Chopin, 2nd ballad; R. Wagner, Lohengrin, introduction; P. I. Tchaikovsky, symphony . fantasy “The Tempest”), or with the genre of free fantasy, rhapsodies (W. A. Mozart, Fantasia c-moll, K.-V. 475). In free forms, however, elements of typed forms are almost always used, or they are specially interpreted ordinary F. m.
Opera music is subject to two groups of formative principles: theatrical-dramatic and purely musical. Depending on the preponderance of one principle or another, operatic musical compositions are grouped around three fundamentals. types: numbered opera (for example, Mozart in the operas “The Marriage of Figaro”, “Don Giovanni”), music. drama (R. Wagner, “Tristan and Isolde”; C. Debussy, “Pelleas and Mélisande”), mixed, or synthetic., type (M. P. Mussorgsky, “Boris Godunov”; D. D. Shostakovich, “Katerina Izmailov”; S. S. Prokofiev, “War and Peace”). See Opera, Dramaturgy, Musical Drama. The mixed type of opera form gives the optimal combination of stage continuity. actions with rounded F. M. An example of F. M. of this type is the scene in the tavern from Mussorgsky’s opera Boris Godunov (artistically perfect distribution of ariose and dramatic elements in connection with the form of the stage action).
VI. Musical forms of the 20th century F. m. 20 p. are conditionally divided into two types: one with the preservation of old compositions. types – a complex three-part f. m., rondo, sonata, fugue, fantasy, etc. (by A. N. Scriabin, I. F. Stravinsky, N. Ya. Myaskovsky, S. S. Prokofiev, D. D. Shostakovich, P. Hindemith, B. Bartok, O. Messiaen, composers of the new Viennese school, etc.), another without their preservation (by C. Ives, J. Cage, composers of the new Polish school, K. Stockhausen, P. Boulez , D. Ligeti, with some Soviet composers – L. A. Grabovsky, S. A. Gubaidullina, E. V. Denisov, S. M. Slonimsky, B. I. Tishchenko, A. G. Schnittke, R K. Shchedrin and others). In the 1st floor. 20th century the first kind of F. m dominates, in the 2nd floor. significantly increases the role of the second. The development of a new harmony in the 20th century, especially in combination with a different role for timbre, rhythm, and the construction of fabric, is able to greatly renew the old structural type of rhythmic music (Stravinsky, The Rite of Spring, the final rondo of the Great Sacred Dance with the scheme AVASA, rethought in connection with the renewal of the entire musical language system). With a radical internal the renewal of the F. m. can be equated with the new one, since the connections with the former structural types may not be perceived as such (for example, the orc. , however, is not perceived as such because of the sonoristic technique, which makes it more similar to the F. m. of other sonoristic op. than the usual tonal op. in sonata form). Hence the key concept of “technique” (writing) for the study of F. m. in the music of the 20th century. (the concept of “technique” combines the idea of the sound material used and its properties, of harmony, writing and form elements).
In tonal (more precisely, new-tonal, see Tonality) music of the 20th century. The renewal of traditional F. m. occurs primarily due to new types of harmonica. centers and corresponding to the new harmonic properties. material of functional relations. So, in the 1st part of the 6th fp. sonatas by Prokofiev traditional. contrasting the “solid” structure of Ch. part and the “loose” (albeit quite stable) side part is convexly expressed by the contrast of the strong A-dur tonic in ch. theme and a softened veiled foundation (hdfa chord) in the side. The relief of F. m. is achieved by new harmonics. and structural means, due to the new content of the muses. lawsuit. The situation is similar with modal technique (example: 3-part form in Messiaen’s play “Calm Complaint”) and with the so-called. free atonality (for example, a piece by R. S. Ledenev for harp and strings, quartet, op. 16 No 6, performed in the technique of central consonance).
In the music of the 20th century a polyphonic renaissance is taking place. thinking and polyphonic. F. m. Contrapuntal. letter and old polyphonic F. m. became the basis of the so-called. neoclassical (b. h. neo-baroque) direction (“For modern music, the harmony of which is gradually losing its tonal connection, the connecting force of contrapuntal forms should be especially valuable” – Taneyev S. I., 1909). Along with filling the old F. m. (fugues, canons, passacaglia, variations, etc.) with a new intonation. content (in Hindemith, Shostakovich, B. Bartok, partly Stravinsky, Shchedrin, A. Schoenberg, and many others) a new interpretation of the polyphonic. F. m. (for example, in the “Passacaglia” from Stravinsky’s septet, the neoclassical principle of linear, rhythmic and large-scale invariance of the ostinato theme is not observed, at the end of this part there is a “disproportionate” canon, the nature of the monothematism of the cycle is similar to the serial-polyphonic. variations ).
Serial-dodecaphonic technique (see Dodecaphony, Serial technique) was originally intended (in the Novovensk school) to restore the opportunity to write large classics, lost in “atonality”. F. m. In fact, the expediency of using this technique in neoclassical. purpose is somewhat questionable. Although quasi-tonal and tonal effects are easily achieved using serial technique (for example, in the minuet trio of Schoenberg’s suite op. 25, the tonality of es-moll is clearly audible; in the entire suite, oriented to a similar Bach time cycle, serial rows are drawn only from sounds e and b, each of which is the initial and final sound in two serial rows, and thus the monotony of the baroque suite is imitated here), although it will not be difficult for the master to oppose “tonally” stable and unstable parts, modulation-transposition, corresponding reprises of themes and other components of tonal F. m., internal contradictions (between the new intonation and the old technique of tonal F. m.), characteristic of neoclassical. shaping, affect here with particular force. (As a rule, those connections with the tonic and the oppositions based on them are unattainable or artificial here, which were shown in Scheme A of the last example in relation to the classical-romantic. F. m.) samples of F. m. Mutual correspondence of the new intonation, harmonic. forms, writing techniques and form techniques are achieved by A. Webern. For example, in the 1st part of the symphony op. 21 he does not rely only on the formative properties of serial conductions, on neoclassical. by origin, canons and quasi-sonata pitch ratios, and, using all this as material, forms it with the help of new means of F. m. – connections between pitch and timbre, timbre and structure, multifaceted symmetries in pitch-timbre-rhythm. fabrics, interval groups, in the distribution of sound density, etc., simultaneously abandoning the methods of shaping that have become optional; new F. m. conveys aesthetic. the effect of purity, sublimity, silence, sacraments. radiance and at the same time trembling of each sound, deep cordiality.
A special kind of polyphonic constructions are formed with the serial-dodecaphone method of composing music; respectively, F. m., made in the serial technique, are polyphonic in essence, or at least according to the fundamental principle, regardless of whether they have a textured appearance of polyphonic. F. m. (for example, the canons in the 2nd part of Webern’s symphony op. 21, see Art. Rakohodnoe movement, an example in columns 530-31; in the 1st part of “Concerta-buff” by S. M. Slonimsky, a minuet trio from the suite for piano, op. 25 by Schoenberg) or quasi-homophonic (for example, the sonata form in the cantata “Light of the Eyes” op. 26 by Webern; in the 1st part of the 3rd symphony by K. Karaev; rondo – sonata in the finale of Schoenberg’s 3rd quartet). In the work of Webern to the main. features of the old polyphonic. F. m. added its new aspects (emancipation of musical parameters, involvement in a polyphonic structure, in addition to high-pitched, thematic repetitions, autonomous interaction of timbres, rhythms, register relations, articulation, dynamics; see, for example, 2nd part variations for piano op.27, orc.variations op.30), which paved the way for another modification of polyphonic. F. m. – in serialism, see Seriality.
In sonoristic music (see Sonorism) predominates are used. individualized, free, new forms (A. G. Schnittke, Pianissimo; E. V. Denisov, piano trio, 1st part, where the main structural unit is “sigh”, is asymmetrically varied, serves as material for building a new , non-classical three-part form, A. Vieru, “Eratosthenes’ sieve”, “Clepsydra”).
Polyphonic in origin F. m. 20th century, osn. on contrasting interactions of simultaneously sounding muses. structures (pieces No. 145a and 145b from Bartok’s Microcosmos, which can be performed both separately and simultaneously; D. Millau’s quartets No. 14 and 15, which have the same feature; K. Stockhausen’s Groups for three spatially separated orchestras). Limit sharpening polyphonic. the principle of independence of voices (layers) of the fabric is an aleatoric of the fabric, allowing for a temporary temporary separation of parts of the general sound and, accordingly, a plurality of their combinations at the same time. combinations (V. Lutoslavsky, 2nd symphony, “Book for Orchestra”).
New, individualized musical instruments (where the “scheme” of the work is the subject of the composition, as opposed to the neoclassical type of modern musical instruments) dominate electronic music (the example is Denisov’s “Birdsong”). Mobile F. m. (updated from one performance to another) are found in some types of alea-toric. music (for example, in Stockhausen’s Piano Piece XI, Boulez’s 3rd Piano Sonata). F. m. 60-70s. mixed techniques are widely used (R. K. Shchedrin, 2nd and 3rd piano concertos). The so-called. repetitive (or repetitive) F. m., the structure of which is based on multiple repetitions b. hours of elementary music. material (for example, in some works by V. I. Martynov). In the field of stage genres – happening.
VII. Teachings about musical forms. The doctrine of F. м. as a dep. branch of applied theoretical musicology and under this name arose in the 18th century. However, its history, which runs parallel to the development of the philosophical problem of the relationship between form and matter, form and content, and coincides with the history of the doctrine of the muses. compositions, dates back to the era of the Ancient World – from the Greek. atomist (Democritus, 5th c. BC. BC) and Plato (he developed the concepts of “scheme”, “morphe”, “type”, “idea”, “eidos”, “view”, “image”; see. Losev A. F., 1963, p. 430-46 and others; his own, 1969, p. 530-52 and others). The most complete ancient philosophical theory of form (“eidos”, “morphe”, “logos”) and matter (related to the problem of form and content) was put forward by Aristotle (the ideas of the unity of matter and form; the hierarchy of the relationship between matter and form, where the highest form is deities. mind; cm. Aristotle, 1976). A doctrine similar to the science of F. m., developed within the framework of melopei, which developed as a special. music theorist discipline, probably under Aristoxenus (2nd half. 4 in.); cm. Cleonides, Janus S., 1895, p. 206-207; Aristides Quintilian, “De musica libri III”). Anonymous Bellerman III in the section “About melopee” sets out (with music. illustrations) information about “rhythms” and melodic. figures (Najock D., 1972, p. 138-143), Vol. e. rather about the elements of F. m. than about F. м. in own sense, to-heaven in the context of the ancient idea of music as a trinity was thought primarily in connection with the poetic. forms, structure of a stanza, verse. The connection with the word (and in this respect the lack of an autonomous doctrine of Ph. м. in modern sense) is also characteristic of the doctrine of F. м. medieval and renaissance. In the psalm, the Magnificat, the hymns of the Mass (cf. section III), etc. genres of this time F. м. in essence, were predetermined by the text and the liturgic. action and did not require special. autonomous doctrine about F. м. In arts. secular genres, where the text was part of F. м. and determined the structure of purely muses. construction, the situation was similar. In addition, the formulas of modes, set forth in the musical-theoretical. treatises, in particular measure served as a kind of “model melody” and were repeated in decomp. products belonging to the same tone. Rules multigoal. letters (starting from “Musica enchiriadis”, end. 9 c.) supplemented F. embodied in the given melody. m.: they also can hardly be considered as a doctrine of Ph. м. in the current sense. Thus, in the Milan treatise “Ad Organum faciendum” (c. 1100), belonging to the genre of “musical-technical.” works on music. compositions (how to “make” the organum), after the main. definitions (organum, copula, diaphony, organizatores, “kinship” of voices – affinitas vocum), the technique of consonances, five “methods of organization” (modi organizandi), i.e. e. various types of use of consonances in the “composition” of the organum-counterpoint, with music. examples; sections of the given two-voice constructions are named (according to the ancient principle: beginning – middle – end): prima vox – mediae voces – ultimae voces. Wed also from ch. 15 “Microlog” (ca. 1025-26) Guido d’Arecco (1966, s. 196-98). To the doctrine of F. м. the descriptions encountered are also close. genres. In the treatise J. de Groheo («De musica», ca. 1300), marked by the influence of already Renaissance methodology, contains an extensive description of many others. genres and F. m .: cantus gestualis, cantus coronatus (or conductor), versicle, rotunda, or rotundel (rondel), responsory, stantipa (estampi), induction, motet, organum, goket, mass and its parts (Introitus, Kyrie, Gloria, etc. .), invitatorium, Venite, antiphon, hymn. Along with them, there are data on the details of the structure of Ph. м. – about “points” (sections F. m.), types of conclusions of parts F. м. (arertum, clausuni), the number of parts in F. м. It is important that Groheo widely uses the very term “F. m.”, moreover, in a sense similar to the modern one: formae musicales (Grocheio J. of, p. 130; cm. will also enter. article by E. Rolof comparison with the interpretation of the term forma y by Aristotle, Grocheio J. of, p. 14-16). Following Aristotle (whose name is mentioned more than once), Groheo correlates “form” with “matter” (p. 120), and “matter” are considered “harmonic. sounds”, and “form” (here the structure of consonance) is associated with “number” (p. 122; Russian per. — Groheo Y. where, 1966, p. 235, 253). A similar rather detailed description of F. м. gives, for example, V. Odington in the treatise “De speculatione musice”: treble, organum, rondel, conduct, copula, motet, goquet; in the music He gives examples of two- and three-voice scores. In the teachings of counterpoint, along with the technique of polyphonic. writings (e.g., in Y. Tinctorisa, 1477; N. Vicentino, 1555; J. Tsarlino, 1558) describes the elements of the theory of some polyphonic. forms, eg. canon (originally in the technique of exchanging voices – rondelle with Odington; “rotunda, or rotundel” with Groheo; from the 14th century. under the name “fugue”, mentioned by Jacob of Liege; also explained by Ramos de Pareja; cm. Parekha, 1966, p. 346-47; near Tsarlino, 1558, ibid., p. 476-80). The development of the fugue form in theory falls mainly on the 17th-18th centuries. (particularly J. М. Bononcini, 1673; And. G. Walter, 1708; AND. AND. Fuchsa, 1725; And. A. Shaybe (oc. 1730), 1961; I. Mattheson, 1739; F. AT. Marpurga, 1753-54; I. F. Kirnberger, 1771-79; AND. G. Albrechtsberger, 1790, etc.), then at the muses.
On the theory of F. m. 16-18 centuries. a notable influence was exerted by the understanding of the functions of the parts on the basis of the doctrine of rhetoric. Originating in Dr. Greece (c. 5th century BC), on the verge of late antiquity and the Middle Ages, rhetoric became part of the “seven liberal arts” (septem artes liberales), where it came into contact with the “science of music” (“… rhetoric could not but be extremely influential in relation to music as an expressive language factor “- Asafiev B.V., 1963, p. 31). One of the departments of rhetoric – Dispositio (“arrangement”; i.e., composition plan op.) – as a category corresponds to the doctrine of F. m., indicates a definition. structural functions of its parts (see Section V). To the idea and structure of the muses. cit., and other departments of music also belong to F. m. rhetoric – Inventio (“invention” of musical thought), Decoratio (its “decoration” with the help of musical-rhetorical figures). (On musical rhetoric, see: Calvisius S., 1592; Burmeister J., 1599; Lippius J., 1612; Kircher A., 1650; Bernhard Chr., 1926; Janowka Th. B., 1701; Walther JG, 1955 ; Mattheson J., 1739; Zakharova O., 1975.) From the standpoint of music. rhetoric (functions of parts, dispositio) Mattheson analyzes precisely F. m. in the aria of B. Marcello (Mattheson J., 1739); in terms of music. rhetoric, the sonata form was first described (see Ritzel F., 1968). Hegel, differentiating the concepts of matter, form and content, introduced the latter concept into broad philosophical and scientific use, gave it (however, on the basis of an objective idealistic methodology) a deep dialectic. explanation, made it an important category of the doctrine of art, of music (“Aesthetics”).
New science of F. m., in own. sense of the doctrine of F. m., was developed in the 18-19 centuries. In a number of works of the 18th century. the problems of meter (“the doctrine of beats”), motive development, expansion and fragmentation of muses are investigated. construction, sentence structure and period, the structure of some of the most important homophonic instr. F. m., established resp. concepts and terms (Mattheson J., 1739; Scheibe JA, 1739; Riepel J., 1752; Kirnberger J. Ph., 1771-79; Koch H. Ch., 1782-93; Albrechtsberger JG, 1790). In con. 18 – beg. 19th centuries a general systematics of homophonic F. m. was outlined, and consolidated works on F. m. appeared, covering in detail both their general theory and their structural features, tonal harmonic. structure (from the teachings of the 19th century – Weber G., 1817-21; Reicha A., 1818, 1824-26; Logier J. B., 1827). Classic A. B. Marx gave a consolidated doctrine of F. m.; his “Teaching about Music. compositions” (Marx A.V., 1837-47) covers everything a composer needs to master the art of composing music. F. m. Marx interprets as “expression … of content”, by which he means “sensations, ideas, ideas of the composer.” Marx’s system of homophonic F. m. comes from the “primary forms” of music. thoughts (movement, sentence, and period), relies on the form of the “song” (the concept he introduced) as fundamental in the general systematics of F. m.
The main types of homophonic F. m .: song, rondo, sonata form. Marx classified five forms of rondo (they were adopted in the 19th – early 20th centuries in Russian musicology and educational practice):
(Examples of rondo forms: 1. Beethoven, 22nd piano sonata, 1st part; 2. Beethoven, 1st piano sonata, Adagio; 3. Mozart, rondo a-moll; 4. Beethoven, 2- 5st piano sonata, finale 1. Beethoven, 1st piano sonata, finale.) In the construction of the classical. F. m. Marx saw the operation of the “natural” law of tripartiteness as the main one in any music. designs: 2) thematic. exposure (ust, tonic); 3) modulating moving part (motion, gamma); 1900) reprise (rest, tonic). Riemann, recognizing the importance for true art of the “significance of content”, “idea”, which is expressed by means of F. m. (Riemann H., (6), S. 1901), interpreted the latter also as “a means to rally parts of the works in one piece. Of the resulting “general aesthetic. principles” he deduced “the laws of specially-music. construction” (G. Riemann, “Musical Dictionary”, M. – Leipzig, 1342, p. 1343-1907). Riemann showed the interaction of the muses. elements in the formation of F. m. (for example, “Catechism of piano playing”, M., 84, pp. 85-1897). Riemann (see Riemann H., 1902, 1903-1918, 19-1892; Riemann G., 1898, 1806), relying on the so-called. iambic principle (cf. Momigny JJ, 1853, and Hauptmann M., XNUMX), created a new doctrine of the classical. metric, a square eight-cycle, in which each cycle has a certain metric. value different from others:
(the values of the light odd measures depend on the heavy ones they lead to). However, evenly spreading the structural patterns of metrically stable parts to unstable ones (moves, developments), Riemann, therefore, did not take into account structural contrasts in the classical. F. m. G. Schenker deeply substantiated the importance of tonality, tonics for the formation of classical. F. m., created the theory of structural levels of F. m., ascending from the elementary tonal core to the “layers” of integral music. compositions (Schenker H., 1935). He also owns the experience of a monumental holistic analysis otd. works (Schenker H., 1912). Deep development of the problem of the formative value of harmony for the classical. f. m. gave A. Schoenberg (Schönberg A., 1954). In connection with the development of new techniques in music of the 20th century. there were doctrines about P. m. and muses. composition structure based on dodecaphony (Krenek E., 1940; Jelinek H., 1952-58, etc.), modality and new rhythmic. technology (Messiaen O., 1944; it also speaks of the resumption of some Middle Ages. F. m. – hallelujah, Kyrie, sequences, etc.), electronic composition (see “Die Reihe”, I, 1955) , new P. m. (for example, the so-called open, statistical, moment P. m. in the theory of Stockhausen – Stockhausen K., 1963-1978; also Boehmer K., 1967). (See Kohoutek Ts., 1976.)
In Russia, the doctrine of F. м. originates from the “Music Grammar” by N. AP Diletsky (1679-81), which provides a description of the most important F. м. of that era, polygonal technology. letters, functions of parts F. м. (“in every concerto” there must be a “beginning, middle and end” – Diletsky, 1910, p. 167), elements and factors of shaping (“padyzhi”, vol. e. cadenzas; “ascension” and “descent”; “dudal rule” (ie. e. org point), “countercurrent” (counterpoint; however, dotted rhythm is meant), etc.). In the interpretation of F. м. Diletsky feels the influence of the categories of muses. rhetoric (its terms are used: “disposition”, “invention”, “exordium”, “amplification”). The doctrine of F. м. in the newest sense falls on the 2nd floor. 19 – beg. 20 cc The third part of the “Complete guide to composing music” by I. Gunke (1863) – “On the Forms of Musical Works” – contains a description of many applied F. м. (fugue, rondo, sonata, concerto, symphony poem, etude, serenade, ed. dances, etc.), analyzes of exemplary compositions, a detailed explanation of some “complex forms” (eg. sonata form). In the 2nd section, polyphonic is set out. technique, described osn. polyphonic. F. м. (fugues, canons). With practical compositions. positions, a short “Guide to the study of the forms of instrumental and vocal music” was written by A. C. Arensky (1893-94). Deep thoughts on the structure of F. m., its relation to the harmonic. system and historical fate was expressed by S. AND. Taneev (1909, 1927, 1952). The original concept of the temporal structure of F. м. created by G. E. Conus (base. work – “Embryology and morphology of the musical organism”, manuscript, Museum of Musical Culture. М. AND. Glinka; cm. also Konus G. E., 1932, 1933, 1935). A number of concepts and terms of the doctrine of F. м. made by B. L. Yavorsky (pre-test, change in the 3rd quarter, comparison with the result). In the work of V. М. Belyaev “A Brief Exposition of the Doctrine of Counterpoint and the Doctrine of Musical Forms” (1915), which had an impact on the subsequent concept of F. м. in owls musicology, a new (simplified) understanding of the rondo form is given (based on the opposition of Ch. theme and a number of episodes), the concept of “song form” was eliminated. B. AT. Asafiev in the book. “Musical form as a process” (1930-47) was substantiated by F. м. the development of intonation processes in connection with the historical. the evolution of the existence of music as a social determinant. phenomena (the idea of F. м. as indifferent to intonation. material properties schemes “brought the dualism of form and content to the point of absurdity” – Asafiev B. V., 1963, p. 60). Immanent properties of music (incl. and F. m.) – only possibilities, the implementation of which is determined by the structure of society (p. 95). Resuming the ancient (still Pythagorean; cf. Bobrovsky V. P., 1978, p. 21-22) the idea of a triad as a unity of the beginning, middle and end, Asafiev proposed a generalized theory of the formation-process of any F. m., expressing the stages of development with the concise formula initium – motus – terminus (see. section V). Main the focus of the study is to determine the prerequisites for the dialectics of music. formation, the development of the doctrine of internal. dynamics F. м. (“ice. form as a process”), which opposes the “silent” forms-schemes. Therefore, Asafiev singles out in F. м. “two sides” – form-process and form-construction (p. 23); he also emphasizes the importance of the two most common factors in the formation of F. м. – identities and contrasts, classifying all F. м. according to the predominance of one or the other (Vol. 1, section 3). Structure F. m., according to Asafiev, is associated with its focus on the psychology of listener perception (Asafiev B. V., 1945). In the article V. A. Zuckerman about the opera by N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov “Sadko” (1933) music. prod. for the first time considered by the method of “holistic analysis”. In line with the main classic settings. theories of metrics are interpreted by F. м. at G. L. Catuara (1934-36); he introduced the concept of “trochea of the second kind” (metrical form ch. parts of the 1st part 8th fp. sonatas by Beethoven). Following the scientific Taneyev’s methods, S. C. Bogatyrev developed the theory of double canon (1947) and reversible counterpoint (1960). AND. AT. Sposobin (1947) developed the theory of functions of parts in F. m., explored the role of harmony in shaping. A. TO. Butskoy (1948) made an attempt to construct the doctrine of F. m., from the standpoint of the ratio of content and express. means of music, bringing together the traditions. theorist. musicology and aesthetics (p. 3-18), focusing the researcher’s attention on the problem of music analysis. works (p. 5). In particular, Butskoy raises the question of the meaning of this or that express. means of music due to the variability of their meanings (for example, increase. triads, p. 91-99); in his analyzes, the method of binding expresses is used. effect (content) with a complex of means expressing it (p. 132-33 and others). (Compare: Ryzhkin I. Ya., 1955.) Butsky’s book is an experience of creating a theoretical. the foundations of the “analysis of music. works” – a scientific and educational discipline that replaces the traditional. the science of F. м. (Bobrovsky V. P., 1978, p. 6), but very close to it (see Fig. musical analysis). In the textbook of Leningrad authors, ed. Yu N. Tyulin (1965, 1974) introduced the concepts of “inclusion” (in a simple two-part form), “multi-part refrain forms”, “introductory part” (in a side part of the sonata form), and the higher forms of rondo were classified in more detail. In the work of L. A. Mazel and V. A. Zuckerman (1967) consistently carried out the idea of considering the means of F. м. (to a large extent – the material of music) in unity with the content (p. 7), the musical-express. funds (including such, to-rye are rarely considered in the teachings about F. m., – dynamics, timbre) and their impact on the listener (see. See also: Zuckerman W. A., 1970), the method of holistic analysis is described in detail (p. 38-40, 641-56; further – samples of analysis), developed by Zuckerman, Mazel and Ryzhkin back in the 30s. Mazel (1978) summarized the experience of the convergence of musicology and muses. aesthetics in the practice of music analysis. works. In the works of V. AT. Protopopov introduced the concept of a contrast-composite form (see. his work “Contrasting Composite Forms”, 1962; Stoyanov P., 1974), the possibilities of variations. forms (1957, 1959, 1960, etc.), in particular, the term “form of the second plan” was introduced, the history of polyphonic. letters and polyphonic forms of the 17th-20th centuries. (1962, 1965), the term “large polyphonic form”. Bobrovsky (1970, 1978) studied F. м. as a multi-level hierarchical a system whose elements have two inextricably linked sides – functional (where the function is the “general principle of connection”) and structural (the structure is “a specific way of implementing the general principle”, 1978, p. 13). The (Asafiev’s) idea of three functions of general development has been elaborated in detail: “impulse” (i), “movement” (m) and “completion” (t) (p. 21). Functions are divided into general logical, general compositional, and specifically compositional (p. 25-31). The original idea of the author is the combination of functions (permanent and mobile), respectively – “composition. deviation”, “composition. modulation” and “composition. ellipsis” (an example of “ascending composition.
References: Diletsky N. P., Musical Grammar (1681), under ed. C. AT. Smolensky, St. Petersburg, 1910, the same, in Ukrainian. yaz. (by hand. 1723) – Musical Grammar, KIPB, 1970 (published by O. C. Tsalai-Yakimenko), the same (from the manuscript 1679) under the title — The Idea of Musikian Grammar, M., 1979 (published by Vl. AT. Protopopov); Lvov H. A., Collection of Russian folk songs with their voices …, M., 1790, reprinted., M., 1955; Gunke I. K., A complete guide to composing music, ed. 1-3, St. Petersburg, 1859-63; Arensky A. S., Guide to the study of forms of instrumental and vocal music, M., 1893-94, 1921; Stasov V. V., On some forms of modern music, Sobr. op., vol. 3, St. Petersburg, 1894 (1 ed. On him. language, “NZfM”, 1858, Bd 49, No 1-4); White A. (B. Bugaev), Forms of art (about the musical drama by R. Wagner), “The World of Art”, 1902, No 12; his, The Principle of Form in Aesthetics (§ 3. Music), The Golden Fleece, 1906, No 11-12; Yavorsky B. L., The structure of musical speech, part. 1-3, M., 1908; Taneev S. I., Movable counterpoint of strict writing, Leipzig, 1909, the same, M., 1959; FROM. AND. Taneev. materials and documents, etc. 1, M., 1952; Belyaev V. M., A summary of the doctrine of counterpoint and the doctrine of musical forms, M., 1915, M. – P., 1923; his own, “Analysis of modulations in Beethoven’s sonatas” by S. AND. Taneeva, in collection; Russian book about Beethoven, M., 1927; Asafiev B. AT. (Igor Glebov), The process of designing a sounding substance, in: De musica, P., 1923; his, Musical Form as a Process, Vol. 1, M., 1930, book 2, M. – L., 1947, L., 1963, L., 1971; his, On the direction of form in Tchaikovsky, in the book: Soviet music, Sat. 3, M. – L., 1945; Zotov B., (Finagin A. B.), The problem of forms in music, in sb.: De musica, P., 1923; Finagin A. V., Form as a value concept, in: “De musica”, vol. 1, L., 1925; Konyus G. E., Metrotectonic resolution of the problem of musical form …, “Musical Culture”, 1924, No 1; his own, Criticism of traditional theory in the field of musical form, M., 1932; his own, Metrotectonic study of musical form, M., 1933; his, Scientific substantiation of musical syntax, M., 1935; Ivanov-Boretsky M. V., Primitive musical art, M., 1925, 1929; Losev A. F., Music as a subject of logic, M., 1927; his own, Dialectics of Artistic Form, M., 1927; his, History of Ancient Aesthetics, vol. 1-6, M., 1963-80; Zuckerman V. A., On the plot and musical language of the epic opera “Sadko”, “SM”, 1933, No 3; his, “Kamarinskaya” by Glinka and its traditions in Russian music, M., 1957; his, Musical genres and foundations of musical forms, M., 1964; his same, Analysis of musical works. Textbook, M., 1967 (joint. with L. A. Mazel); his, Musical-Theoretical Essays and Etudes, vol. 1-2, M., 1970-75; his same, Analysis of musical works. Variational form, M., 1974; Katuar G. L., Musical form, part. 1-2, M., 1934-36; Mazel L. A., Fantasia f-moll Chopin. The experience of analysis, M., 1937, the same, in his book: Research on Chopin, M., 1971; his own, Structure of musical works, M., 1960, 1979; his, Some features of the composition in free forms of Chopin, in Sat: Fryderyk Chopin, M., 1960; his, Questions of music analysis …, M., 1978; Skrebkov S. S., Polyphonic analysis, M. – L., 1940; his own, Analysis of musical works, M., 1958; his, Artistic principles of musical styles, M., 1973; Protopopov V. V., Complex (composite) forms of musical works, M., 1941; his own, Variations in Russian classical opera, M., 1957; his own, Invasion of Variations in Sonata Form, “SM”, 1959, No 11; his, Variation method of development of thematism in Chopin’s music, in Sat: Fryderyk Chopin, M., 1960; his own, Contrasting Composite Musical Forms, “SM”, 1962, No 9; his, History of polyphony in its most important phenomena, (ch. 1-2), M., 1962-65; his own, Beethoven’s Principles of Musical Form, M., 1970; his, Sketches from the history of instrumental forms of the 1979th – early XNUMXth centuries, M., XNUMX; Bogatyrev S. S., Double canon, M. – L., 1947; his, Reversible counterpoint, M., 1960; Sposobin I. V., Musical form, M. – L., 1947; Butskoy A. K., The structure of a musical work, L. — M., 1948; Livanova T. N., Musical dramaturgy I. C. Bach and her historical connections, ch. 1, M. – L., 1948; her own, Big composition at the time of I. C. Bach, in Sat: Questions of Musicology, vol. 2, M., 1955; P. AND. Chaikovsky. About composer’s skill, M., 1952; Ryzhkin I. Ya., The relationship of images in a piece of music and the classification of the so-called “musical forms”, in Sat: Questions of Musicology, vol. 2, M., 1955; Stolovych L. N., On the aesthetic properties of reality, “Questions of Philosophy”, 1956, No 4; his, The value nature of the category of beauty and the etymology of words denoting this category, in: The problem of value in philosophy, M. — L., 1966; Arzamanov F. G., S. AND. Taneev – teacher of the course of musical forms, M., 1963; Tyulin Yu. N. (and others), Musical Form, Moscow, 1965, 1974; Losev A. F., Shestakov V. P., History of aesthetic categories, M., 1965; Tarakanov M. E., New images, new means, “SM”, 1966, No 1-2; his, New life of the old form, “SM”, 1968, No 6; Stolovich L., Goldentricht S., Beautiful, in ed.: Philosophical Encyclopedia, vol. 4, M., 1967; Mazel L. A., Zuckerman V. A., Analysis of musical works, M., 1967; Bobrovsky V. P., On the variability of the functions of musical form, M., 1970; his, Functional foundations of musical form, M., 1978; Sokolov O. V., Science of musical form in pre-revolutionary Russia, in: Questions of music theory, vol. 2, M., 1970; his, On two basic principles of shaping in music, in Sat: On Music. Problems of analysis, M., 1974; Hegel G. AT. F., Science of Logic, vol. 2, M., 1971; Denisov E. V., Stable and mobile elements of the musical form and their interaction, in: Theoretical problems of musical forms and genres, M., 1971; Korykhalova N. P., Musical work and “the way of its existence”, “SM”, 1971, No 7; her, Interpretation of music, L., 1979; Milka A., Some questions of development and shaping in the suites of I. C. Bach for cello solo, in: Theoretical problems of musical forms and genres, M., 1971; Yusfin A. G., Features of formation in some types of folk music, ibid.; Stravinsky I. F., Dialogues, trans. from English, L., 1971; Tyukhtin B. C., Categories “form” and “content …”, “Questions of Philosophy”, 1971, No 10; Tic M. D., On the thematic and compositional structure of musical works, trans. from Ukrainian, K., 1972; Harlap M. G., Folk-Russian musical system and the problem of the origin of music, in collection: Early forms of art, M., 1972; Tyulin Yu. N., Works by Tchaikovsky. Structural analysis, M., 1973; Goryukhina H. A., Evolution of sonata form, K., 1970, 1973; her own. Questions of the theory of musical form, in: Problems of musical science, vol. 3, M., 1975; Medushevsky V. V., On the problem of semantic synthesis, “SM”, 1973, No 8; Brazhnikov M. V., Fedor Krestyanin – Russian chanter of the XNUMXth century (research), in the book: Fedor Krestyanin. Stihiry, M., 1974; Borev Yu. B., Aesthetics, M., 4975; Zakharova O., Musical rhetoric of the XNUMXth – first half of the XNUMXth century, in collection: Problems of Musical Science, vol. 3, M., 1975; Zulumyan G. B., On the question of the formation and development of the content of musical art, in: Questions of the theory and history of aesthetics, vol. 9, Moscow, 1976; Analysis of musical works. Abstract program. Section 2, M., 1977; Getselev B., Formation factors in large instrumental works of the second half of the 1977th century, in collection: Problems of music of the XNUMXth century, Gorky, XNUMX; Saponov M. A., Mensural rhythm and its apogee in the work of Guillaume de Machaux, in collection: Problems of musical rhythm, M., 1978; Aristotle, Metaphysics, Op. in 4 volumes, vol. 1, M., 1976; Riemann G., Systematic study of modulation as a basic study of musical forms, M.
Yu. H. Kholopov