Musical paleography |
Music Terms

Musical paleography |

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terms and concepts

Musical paleography (from the Greek palaios – old, ancient and grapo – I write) – the area of ​​uXNUMXbuXNUMXbhistorical musicology, a special musical-historical. discipline. He studies ancient systems of recording music, the patterns of evolution of muses. signs, modification of their graphics. forms, as well as monuments of muses. writing (ch. arr. singing manuscripts for cult purposes) in terms of musical systems, time and place of creation, authorship. The scope of P. m. includes the study of paper watermarks (filigrees), the material and format of music. manuscripts. In modern research practice P. m. also performs source-vedch. functions: identification, description and systematization of handwritten muses. monuments, the definition of their genre affiliation, the study of the evolution of the genres themselves, etc. P. m. studies various systems of muses. records: alphabetic, digital, notolinear, using special conventional signs (ekphonetic, neumatic, znamenny, etc.).

The ultimate goal of musical-paleographic. research – deciphering the various systems of muses. recording and translation of music. the text of handwritten monuments in the modern. linear notation. Therefore, the most important practical The task of P. m. is the development of scientifically based techniques and methods for reading music. texts of ancient manuscripts, disclosure of intonation-figurative features of muses. languages ​​of different eras. In this regard, P. m. explores the semantics of muses. letters, including (in a historical aspect) the problems of coding music. information. P. m. also faces a number of problems of general history. and music. order – the genesis of systems of muses. records, their classification and interaction in the process of evolution, the nature of this evolution, the interaction of the verbal and the muses. texts, intonational-figurative connections of muses. culture of written tradition and folklore, methodology for the study of handwritten muses. monuments.

How specific. part of P. m. is included in the historical and philological. paleography, uses its methods of studying handwritten material. P. m. as scientific. discipline was formed at the junction of historical. musicology, paleography and music. source studies, therefore, in P.m. paleographic methods are combined, musical and analytical. and music-historical. research, used theoretical. developments and methods of statistics, information theory, and other sciences and disciplines.

Music research. handwritten material passes the following technological. stages:

1) source study (identification of the monument, its description and classification);

2) general paleographic (paleographic study of the manuscript: external features, dating, authorship, preservation, writing style of verbal and musical texts, pagination, etc.);

3) musical-paleographic (features of the correlation of verbal and musical texts, classification of the system of musical recordings, comparative analysis and systematization of graphic complexes and elements of musical recordings, etc.). Musical-paleographic. the research stage involves the use of comparative historical, musical and theoretical, mathematical. and other methods, the circle of which is expanding as material accumulates and the development of P. m. itself as a musical-technological. disciplines.

The results of musical-paleographic. studies are reflected in publications, including facsimile editions of muses. monuments with scientific research and commentary, which often contain the development of a methodology for deciphering and translating music. text to linear notation.

In P. m., Russian can be distinguished. chanter paleography, Byzantine (Greek) music. paleography, Latin (Gregorian) music. paleography, arm. music paleography and other areas. The subdivision is based on graphic, syntactic. and other features of music. records in monuments regions. Each of the studied areas of P. m. corresponds to a circle of manuscripts, as a rule, in a certain language, which has a specific language. features in the used systems of music. records. In the future, with greater specialization and accumulation of material, new types of P. m may stand out.

As a special science, P. m. began to take shape in the 50s. 19th century Of fundamental importance were the works of the French. scientist E. A. Kusmaker, who set up the study of the Middle Ages. music writing on solid scientific ground and refuted unfounded hypotheses about the origin of Western European. nevm. Subsequently, X. Riemann, O. Fleischer, P. Wagner made a great contribution to the study and deciphering of deciphered writing, and at a later time – P. Ferretti, J. Handshin, E. Yammers and others. In 1889-1950 in France, under the editorship of . A. Mokro (since 1931 – J. Gazhar) published an extensive collection of monuments of demented writing with a detailed research. commentary (“Paleographie musicale” – “Musical paleography”, 19 vols.). Features of the Byzantine Middle Ages. notations were first widely covered in the works of A. Gastuet and J. B. Thibaut at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries; however, decisive successes were achieved in this area in the 20s and 30s. thanks to the research of E. Welles, G. J. W. Tilyard and K. Hög. They managed to completely decipher the Middle Byzantine notation, which opened the way to understanding the monuments of the Paleo-Byzantine notation. Since 1935, the Monumentae musicae byzantinae (Monuments of Byzantine Music) series has been published, which includes scientifically commented publications and special studies. In modern In scientific works, the idea of ​​the commonality of the foundations of Byzantine is gaining more and more recognition. and Western European non-criminal writing and the possibility of creating a single universal P. m., covering all types of Middle Ages. music writing.

Rus. Singing paleography explores Slavic-Russian singing handwritten monuments of the 12th – early. 18th century (separate manuscripts – up to the 20th century): Kondakari, Stihirari, Irmologii, Oktoikhi, etc. In these manuscripts, as a rule, ideographic (znamenny) systems of muses are used. records: kondakar, pillar, travel, etc. At the same time, Russian singing paleography considers notolinear writing, which had in the 17th century. specific in Russia. features (the so-called Kiev banner, the features of which have not yet been fully studied), and banner-notolinear manuscripts of con. 17 – beg. 18th century (see. Double banner), giving the opportunity to compare. analysis of two semantically different music coding systems. intonation. The study of Znamenny writing was initiated by V. M. Undolsky (1846) and I. P. Sakharov (1849). Musical-paleographic. research was carried out by V. F. Odoevsky and V. V. Stasov. A new stage, which gave important historical generalizations and scientific. systematization of the material, were the works of D. V. Razumovsky. Significant contribution to the development of Russian problems. Singing paleography was introduced by S. V. Smolensky, V. M. Metallov, A. V. Preobrazhensky, and later by V. M. Belyaev, M. V. Brazhnikov, N. D. Uspensky, and others. Brazhnikov played a prominent role in the development of scientific. basics of Russian singing paleography. He created a special course in musical music for musicology students, which he taught at the Leningrad Conservatory from 1969 until the end of his life (1973). He formulated the very concept of Russian. singing paleography as a scientific. discipline (previously, many of its aspects were considered by Russian familyography or church-singing archeology). On modern stage of development of this science became the most relevant source, methodological and muz.-paleographic. Problems. The methodology for describing singing manuscripts has been developed in general terms (Brazhnikov), but the issues of systematization and classification of Russian have not yet been resolved. music monuments, the evolution of singing genres; the problem of the origin of Russian has not been solved. music systems. records both from the side of syntactic and from the side of semantics. Related to the problem of genesis are the problems of coding muses. information in znamenny systems and the evolution of znamenny systems themselves. One of the aspects of evolution was the question of historical. periodization of the Znamenny script (Brazhnikov proposed paleographic periodization based on changing the graphics of the banners); a classification of znamenny systems is being developed.

One of the main problems of the Russian singing paleography – deciphering the Znamenny letter of the non-marked period (see Kryuki). In the scientific literature, two different approaches to solving this problem have been identified. One of them is the path “from the known to the unknown”, i.e. from the later types of hook notation, which have a relative pitch value (“marked” and “signature” writing), to earlier ones that have not yet been fully deciphered. This method was put forward by Smolensky, later it was defended by Metallov, Brazhnikov, and abroad by I. Gardner. Another path followed by a number of Western scientists (M. Velimirovic, O. Strunk, K. Floros, K. Levi) is based on a comparison of the oldest types of Znamenny and Kondakar writing with Paleo-Byzantine notation. None of these methods alone can lead to endings. to solve the problem, and to achieve a positive, scientifically motivated result, their interaction is necessary.

Arm. music paleography studies ancient systems of muses. records in the monuments of the Armenian. music cultures of the 5th-18th centuries. (from the 8th century – khaz notation). In the latest research, The authors note that an independent notation system was developed in Armenia, which had a specific nat. traits. Ancient arm. music manuscripts are collected and studied in the State. repository of ancient manuscripts under the Council of Ministers of the Arm. SSR (Matenadaran), which is of world importance. Among the main problems of arm. music paleography includes the dating of early manuscripts, the genesis of Arm. notation and search for prototypes of haz notation, deciphering, studying the relationships of the Middle Ages. prof. and Nar. music, etc.

The development of musical-paleographic. problems of the Armenian music paleography is associated with the names of Gr. Gapasakalyan, E. Tntesyan, Komitas. The latter for the first time raised the problems of the genesis and evolution of haz notation, began scientific. music-paleographic. study of the monuments of the Armenian. music culture; theoretical problems are considered in the works of X. S. Kushnarev, PA Atayan, N. K. Tagmizyan.

References: Undolsky V., Notes on the history of church singing in Russia, “Readings in imp. Society of Russian History and Antiquities, 1846, No 3; Sakharov I., Studies on Russian church chanting, Journal of the Ministry of Public Education, 1849, part 61; Lvov A. F., O free or asymmetrical rhythm, St. Petersburg, 1858; Razumovsky D. V., On musical non-linear manuscripts of church znamenny singing, M., 1863; his own, Materials for an archaeological dictionary, “Antiquities. Proceedings of the Moscow Archaeological Society, vol. 1, M., 1865; Smolensky S. V., A brief description of the ancient (XII-XIII centuries) famous hermologist …, Kazan, 1887; his own, On Old Russian singing notations, St. Petersburg, 1901; his, On the immediate practical tasks and scientific research in the field of Russian church singing archeology, St. Petersburg, 1904; his, Several new data on the so-called Kondakar banner, “RMG”, 1913, No 44-46, 49; Metalov V. M., ABC of hook singing, M., 1899; his own, Russian simiography, M., 1912; Preobrazhensky A. V., On the similarity of Russian musical writing with Greek in singing manuscripts of the 1909th-1926th centuries, St. Petersburg, XNUMX; his, Greco-Russian singing parallels of the XII-XIII centuries, “De musica”, L., XNUMX; Brazhnikov M. V., Ways of development and tasks of deciphering the Znamenny chant of the XII-XVII centuries, L. – M., 1949; his, New Monuments of Znamenny Chant, L., 1967; his own, Zur Terminologie der altrussischen Vokalmusik, “Beiträge zur Musikwissenschaft”, 1968, Jahrg. 10, H. 3; his, Brief guidelines and schemes for the description of ancient Russian singing manuscripts, in the book. : Guidelines for the description of Slavonic Russian manuscripts for the Consolidated catalog of manuscripts stored in the USSR, vol. 1, M., 1973; his own, Monuments of Znamenny Chant, L., 1974; his own, Fedor Krestyanin – Russian chanter of the 1974th century, in the book: Krestyanin F., Stihiry, M., 1975; his own, Russian singing paleography and its actual tasks, “SM”, 4, No 1975; his own, Articles on Old Russian Music, L., XNUMX; Atayan R. A., Questions of studying and deciphering the Armenian khaz notation, Yer., 1954; Belyaev V. M., Old Russian musical writing, M., 1962; Uspensky N. Д., Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, М., 1965, 1971; Tahmizian N., The Ancient Armenian Musical Manuscripts and Issues Relating to Their Deciphering, “Review of Armenian Studies”, P., 1970, t. VII; его же, Spruces of Armenian and Byzantine Music in the Early Middle Ages, “Musyka”, 1977, No 1, с 3-12; Apоян Н. O., On the Theory of Medieval Nevmennoe Notation on the Basis of Armenian Khazs, Yer., 1972; his own, Deciphering non-mental notation based on Armenian Khaz, Er., 1973; Keldysh Yu. V., On the problem of the origin of the Znamenny chant, “Musica antiqua”, Bydgoszcz, 1975; Nikishov G. A., Comparative paleography of the kondakar writing of the 1th-3th centuries, ibid.; Fleicher O., Neumen-Studien, TI XNUMX-XNUMX, Lpz. — B., 1895-1904; Wagner P., Introduction to Gregorian melodies, vol. 2, neumes, paleography of liturgical chants, Lpz., 1905, 1912; Thibaut P., Origine byzantine de la notation neumatique de l’йglise latine, P., 1907; Wellesz E., Studies on Paldography of Byzantine Music, «ZfMw», 1929-1930, vol. 12, H. 7; eго жe, A History of Byzantine Music and Hymnography, Oxf., 1949, 1961; Tillyar d H. J. W., Handbook of the middle bizantine musical notation, Cph., 1935; его же, The stages of the early bytantines musical notation, «Byzantinische Zeitschrift», 1952, H. 1; Коsсhmieder E., The oldest Novgorod hirmology fragments, Lfg. 1-3, Munich, 1952-58; его же, On the origin of the Slavic Krjuki notation, “Festschrift for Dmytro Cyzevskyj on the 60th Geburtstag, В., 1954; Hцeg C., The oldest slavonic tradition of byzantine music, «Proceeding of the British Academy», v. 39, 1953; Palikarova-Verdeil R., La musique byzantine chez les slaves (Bulgares et Russes) aux IX-e et Xe siиcles, Cph., 1953; Gardner J., Some of the orthography of Old Russian neumes before the 1668 reform, «Welt der Slaven», 1960, No 2; его же, On the problem of the structure of the scale in the old Russian Neumengesang, в сб.: Musik des Ostens, (Bd) 2, Kassel, 1963; Velimirovic M., Byzantines elements in early slavic chant, Cph. 1960; Arro E., Main Problems of Eastern European Music History, в сб.: Music of the East, (Bd) 1, Kassel, 1962; A handwritten textbook of Old Russian neumatic writing, ed. by J v. Gardner and E. Koschmieder, Tl 1-3, Munich, 1963-72; Floros C., The decipherment of Kondakaria notation, в сб.: Musik des Ostens, (Bd) 3-4, Kassel, 1965?67; его же, Universale Neumenkunde, vols. 1-3, Kassel, 1970; Smolensky S.

G. A. Nikishov

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