Harmony |
Music Terms

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Dictionary categories
terms and concepts

Greek armonia – connection, harmony, proportionality

Expressive means of music based on combining tones into consonances and sequences of consonances. Consonances are implied in terms of mode and tonality. G. manifests itself not only in polyphony, but also in monophony – melody. The fundamental concepts of rhythm are chord, modal, function (see Modal Functions), voice leading. The tertian principle of chord formation dominates for many years. centuries in prof. and Nar. music diff. peoples. Fret functions arise in harmonic. movement (successive change of chords) as a result of the alternation of muses. stability and instability; functions in G. are characterized by the position occupied by chords in harmony. The central chord of the mode gives the impression of stability (tonic), the remaining chords are unstable (dominant and subdominant groups). Voice leading can also be considered as a consequence of harmonics. movement. The voices that make up a given chord pass to the sounds of the next one, and so on; moves of chord voices are formed, otherwise voice leading, subject to certain rules developed in the process of musical creativity and partially updated.

There are three meanings of the term “G.”: G. as an artistic means of musical art (I), as an object of study (II), and as an educational subject (III).

I. To understand the arts. G.’s qualities, that is, her role in music. work, it is important to take into account its expressive possibilities (1), harmonic. color (2), G.’s participation in the creation of muses. forms (3), the relationship of G. and other components of music. language (4), G.’s attitude to music. style (5), the most important stages of the historical development of G. (6).

1) G.’s expressiveness should be evaluated in the light of general expressions. the possibilities of music. harmonic expression is specific, although it depends on the terms of the muses. language, especially from the melody. A certain expressiveness can be inherent in individual consonances. At the beginning of R. Wagner’s opera “Tristan and Isolde” a chord sounds, which largely determines the nature of the music of the entire work:

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This chord, called “Tristan”, permeates the entire composition, appears in climactic situations and becomes a leitharmony. The nature of the music of the finale of Tchaikovsky’s 6th symphony is predetermined in the opening chord:

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The expressiveness of a number of chords is very definite and historically stable. For example, a reduced seventh chord was used to convey intensely dramatic. experiences (introductions to Beethoven’s sonatas No. 8 and No. 32 for piano). Expression is also characteristic of the simplest chords. For example, at the end of Rachmaninoff’s prelude, op. 23 No 1 (fis-moll) multiple repetition of minor tonic. triads deepens the character inherent in this work.

2) In the expressiveness of G., the modal-functional and coloristic qualities of sounds are combined. harmonic the coloring is manifested in the sounds as such and in the ratio of sounds (for example, two major triads at a distance of a major third). G.’s coloring often serves as a solution to program-depict. tasks. In the development of the 1st part of Beethoven’s 6th (“Pastoral”) symphony, there are long-standing maj. triads; their regular change, will decide. the predominance of keys, tonics to-rykh can be located on all diatonic sounds. the sound range of the main the tonalities of the symphony (F-dur) are very unusual colors for Beethoven’s time. techniques used to embody the images of nature. The image of dawn in the second scene of Tchaikovsky’s opera “Eugene Onegin” is crowned with a bright tonic. triad C-dur. At the beginning of Grieg’s play “Morning” (from the Peer Gynt suite), the impression of enlightenment is achieved by the upward movement of major keys, the tonics of which are separated from each other first by a major third, then by a small one (E-dur, Gis-dur, H- dur). With a sense of harmony. color sometimes combined musical-color representations (see Color hearing).

3) G. participates in the creation of muses. forms. G.’s form-building means include: a) chord, leitharmony, harmonic. coloring, organ point; b) harmonic. pulsation (rhythm of change of harmonies), harmonic. variation; c) cadences, sequences, modulations, deviations, tonal plans; d) harmony, functionality (stability and instability). These means are used in both homophonic and polyphonic music. warehouse.

Inherent in modal harmonics. functions stability and instability are involved in the creation of all muses. structures – from period to sonata form, from small invention to extensive fugue, from romance to opera and oratorio. In tripartite forms found in many works, instability is usually characteristic of the middle part of the developmental character, but relates. stability – to the extreme parts. The development of sonata forms is distinguished by active instability. The alternation of stability and instability is the source of not only movement, development, but also the constructive integrity of the muses. forms. The cadences are especially clearly involved in the construction of the form of the period. typical harmonica. relationship of sentence endings, e.g. the relationship between the dominant and the tonic became the stable properties of the period – the basis of many muses. forms. Cadenzas concentrate functional, harmonious. music connections.

The tonal plan, that is, a functionally and coloristically meaningful sequence of tonalities, is a necessary condition for the existence of muses. forms. There are tonal connections selected by practice, which have received the value of the norm in the fugue, rondo, complex three-part form, etc. The embodiment of tonal plans, especially large forms, is based on the composer’s ability to creatively use tonal connections between “distant” from each other muses. constructions. To make the tonal plan musical. reality, the performer and the listener must be able to compare music at large “distances”. Below is a diagram of the tonal plan of the 1st part of the 6th symphony by Tchaikovsky. To hear, to realize the tonal correlations in such a long-sounding work (354 measures) allow, first of all, the repetition of the muses. topics. Chap emerges. key (h-moll), other important keys (e.g. D-dur), func. interactions and subordination of keys as functions of a higher order (by analogy with functions in chord sequences). Tonal movement on otd. sections are organized by low-thermal relations; combined or closed cycles appear min. tonality, the repetition of which contribute to the perception of the whole.

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Tonal plan of the first movement of Tchaikovsky’s 6th symphony

The coverage of the entire tonal plan is also helped systematically. the use of sequences, regular contrasting alternation of tone-stable, non-modulating and tone-unstable, modulating sections, some similar features of climaxes. The tonal plan of the 1st part of Tchaikovsky’s 6th symphony demonstrates “unity in diversity” and, with all its features, distinguishes it. features, meets the classic. norms. According to one of these norms, the sequence of unstable higher-order functions is opposite to the usual, cadence (S – D). Functional. the formula of tonal movement of three-part (simple) forms and sonata form takes the form T – D – S – T, in contrast to the typical cadence formula T – S – D – T (such, for example, are the tonal plans of the first parts of the first two symphonies of Beethoven). Tonal movement is sometimes compressed into a chord or a succession of chords – harmonic. turnover. One of the culminations of the 1st part of Tchaikovsky’s 6th symphony (see bars 263-276) is built on a long sustained diminished seventh chord, generalizing the previous ascents of the small tertz.

When one or another chord is especially noticeable in a piece, for example. due to the connection with the culmination or due to the important role in the music. theme, he is more or less actively involved in the development and construction of muses. forms. The penetrating, or “through”, action of the chord throughout the work is a phenomenon that historically accompanies and even precedes monothematism; it could be defined as “monoharmonism” leading to leitharmony. Monoharmonic a role is played, for example, by the chords of the second low degree in Beethoven’s sonatas NoNo 14 (“Moonlight”), 17 and 23 (“Appassionata”). Assessing the ratio of G. and muses. form, one should take into account the location of a specific shaping means of geography (exposition, or reprise, etc.), as well as its participation in the implementation of such important principles of shaping as repetition, variation, development, deployment, and contrast.

4) G. is in the circle of other components of music. language and interact with them. Some stereotypes of such interaction are established. For example, changes in metrically strong beats, accents often coincide with chord changes; at a fast tempo, the harmonies change less frequently than at a slow one; the timbre of the instruments in the low register (the beginning of Tchaikovsky’s 6th symphony) emphasizes the dark, and in the high register the light harmonic. coloring (the beginning of the orchestral introduction to the opera Lohengrin by Wagner). The most important are the interactions between music and melody, which plays a leading role in music. prod. G. becomes the most insightful “interpreter” of the rich content of the melody. According to the profound remark of M. I. Glinka, G. finishes the melodic. thought proves what seems to be dormant in the melody and which it cannot express in its own “full voice”. G. hidden in the melody is revealed by harmonization – for example, when composers process nar. songs. Thanks to different chants, the same harmonies. turns produce a different impression. Harmonious wealth. options contained in the melody shows the harmonic. variation, a cut occurs with repetitions of melodic. fragments of greater or lesser extent, located “next to” or “at a distance” (within the form of variations or in any other musical form). Great art. harmonic value. variation (as well as variation in general) is determined by the fact that it becomes a factor in the renewal of music. At the same time, harmonic variation is one of the most important specifics. methods of self-harmonic. development. In “Turkish” from the opera “Ruslan and Lyudmila” by Glinka, among others, the following options for harmonizing the melody are found:

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Such a harmonic variation constitutes an important manifestation of Glinka-type variation. Invariable diatonic. the melody can be harmonized in different ways: only by diatonic (see Diatonic) or only chromatic (see Chromatism) chords, or a combination of both; single-tone harmonizations or with a change of keys, modulating, with the preservation or change of the mode (major or minor) are possible; possible diff. funkt. combinations of stability and instability (tonics, dominants and subdominants); harmonization options include changes in appeals, melodic. positions and arrangements of chords, choice of preim. triads, seventh chords or non-chords, the use of chord sounds and non-chord sounds, and much more. In the process of harmonic. variations are revealed richness will express. possibilities of G., its influence on the melody, and other elements of music. whole.

5) G. together with other muses. components involved in the formation of music. style. You can also specify signs of proper harmonic. style. Stylistically peculiar harmonica. turns, chords, methods of tonal development are known only in the context of the product, in connection with its intention. Keeping in mind the general history style of the era, you can, for example, paint a picture of a romantic. G. as a whole; it is possible to highlight G. from this picture. romantics, then, for example, R. Wagner, then – G. of different periods of Wagner’s work, up to harmonic. style of one of his works, for example. “Tristan and Isolde”. No matter how bright, original were nat. manifestations of G. (for example, in Russian classics, in Norwegian music – in Grieg), in any case, its international, general properties and principles are also present (in the field of mode, functionality, chord structure, etc.), without which G. herself is unthinkable. Author’s (composer’s) stylistic. G.’s specificity was reflected in a number of terms: “Tristan chord”, “Prometheus chord” (the leitharmony of Scriabin’s poem “Prometheus”), “Prokofiev’s dominant”, etc. The history of music demonstrates not only a change, but also the simultaneous existence of decomp. harmonic styles.

6) Need special. the study of the evolution of music, since it has long been a special area of ​​music and musicology. Diff. G.’s sides develop at different rates, they are related. stability is different. For example, evolution in the chord is slower than in the modal-functional and tonal spheres. G. is gradually enriched, but its progress is not always expressed in complication. In other periods (partly also in the 20th century), the progress of hydrogeography requires, first of all, a new development of simple means. For G. (as well as for any art in general) a fruitful fusion in the work of classical composers. tradition and true innovation.

G.’s origins lie in Nar. music. This also applies to peoples who did not know polyphony: any melody, any monophony in potency contains G.; in the definition under favorable conditions, these hidden possibilities are translated into reality. Nar. the origins of G. most clearly appear in a polyphonic song, for example. at the Russian people. In such people The songs contain the most important components of the chord – chords, the change of which reveals modal functions, voice leading. In Russian nar. the song contains major, minor and other natural modes close to them.

G.’s progress is inseparable from the homophonic harmonic. warehouse of music (see. Homophony), in the statement to-rogo in Europe. music claim-ve a special role belongs to the period from the 2nd floor. 16 to 1st floor. 17th century The promotion of this warehouse was prepared during the Renaissance, when more and more place was given to secular muses. genres and opened up wide opportunities for expressing the spiritual world of man. G. found new incentives for development in instr. music, combined instr. and wok. presentation. In terms of homophonic harmonic. warehouse required refers. harmony autonomy. accompaniment and its interaction with the leading melody. New types of self-harmonics arose. textures, new methods of harmony. and melodic. figurations. G.’s enrichment was a consequence of the general interest of composers in varying music. Acoustic data, the distribution of voices in the choir, and other prerequisites led to the recognition of four-voices as the norm of chorus. The practice of the general bass (basso continuo) played a fruitful role in deepening the sense of harmony. Generations of musicians found in this practice and its theoretical. regulation is the very essence of G.; the doctrine of the general bass was the doctrine of the bass. Over time, prominent thinkers and musical scholars began to take a position in relation to the bass that was more independent of the doctrine of the bass general (J. F. Rameau and his followers in this area).

European achievements. music 2nd floor. 16th-17th centuries in the region of G. (not to mention exceptions that have not yet entered into wider practice) are summarized in the main. to the next: natural major and harmonic. minor acquired at this time dominance. position; melodic played a significant role. minor, smaller, but quite weighty – harmonic. major. Prežnie diatonic. frets (Dorian, Mixolydian, etc.) had a concomitant meaning. A tonal diversity developed within the limits of tonalities of close, and occasionally, distant kinship. Persistent tonal correlations were outlined in a number of forms and genres, for example. movement in the dominant direction in the beginnings of productions, contributing to the strengthening of the tonic; temporary departure towards the subdominant in the final sections. Modulations were born. Sequences actively manifested themselves in the linking of keys, the regulatory significance of which was generally important for the development of G. Dominant position belonged to the diatonic. Its functionality, e. the ratio of tonic, dominant and subdominant, was felt not only on a narrow, but also on a wide scale. Manifestations of function variability were observed (see Fig. function variables). Functions were formed. groups, in particular in the sphere of subdominant. Permanent signs of harmonics were established and fixed. revolutions and cadences: authentic, plagal, interrupted. Among the chords, triads (major and minor) dominated, and there were also sixth chords. Quartz-sext chords, in particular cadence chords, began to enter into practice. In a close circle of seventh chords, the seventh chord of the fifth degree (dominant seventh chord) stood out, the seventh chords of the second and seventh degrees were much less common. General, constantly acting factors in the formation of new consonances – melodic. activity of polyphonic voices, non-chord sounds, polyphony. Chromatics penetrated the diatonic, performed against its background. Chromatic. sounds were usually chordal; harmonic Ch. served as incentives for the appearance of chromaticity. arr. modulation. processes, deviations in the tonality of the XNUMXth degree, the XNUMXth degree, parallel (major or minor – see. parallel tones). Main chromatic chords 2nd floor. 16th-17th centuries – the prototypes of the double dominant, the Neapolitan sixth chord (which, contrary to the generally accepted name, appeared long before the emergence of the Neapolitan school) were also formed in connection with modulations. Chromatic. sequences of chords sometimes arose due to the “sliding” of voices, for example. change of a major triad by a minor one of the same name. Endings of minor compositions or their parts in one. major were already familiar in those days. T. o., elements of the major-minor mode (see. Major-minor) were formed gradually. The feeling of awakened harmony. color, the requirements of polyphony, the inertia of sequencing, the conditions of voicing explain the appearance of rare, but all the more noticeable low-terts and bol-terts combinations of diatonically unrelated triads. In music, the 2nd floor. 16th-17th centuries the expression of chords as such is already beginning to be felt. Certain relationships are fixed and become permanent. and forms: the mentioned most important prerequisites for tonal plans are created (modulation into the key of the dominant, major parallel), their typical place is occupied by the main. types of cadences, signs of exposition, development, final presentation of G. Memorable melodic harmonica. sequences are repeated, thereby building a form, and G. receives to a certain extent thematic. value. In music. theme, which was formed during this period, G. occupies an important place. Harmonics are formed and honed. means and techniques covering large sections of a work or production. as a whole. In addition to sequences (incl. h “golden sequence”), the use of which was still limited, they include org. points of tonic and dominant, ostinato in bass (see. Bass ostinato) и др. voices, harmony variation. These historical results development g. during the period of formation and approval of homophonic harmonic. warehouse all the more remarkable that for several. centuries before that in prof. music, polyphony was only in its infancy, and consonances were limited to quarts and fifths. Later, the third interval was found and the triad appeared, which was the true basis of chords and, consequently, G. On the results of the development of G. in decree. period can be judged, for example, by the works of Ya. AP Sweelinka, K. Monteverdi, J. Frescoes.

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Ya. P. Sweelinck. “Chromatic Fantasy”. exposition

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Right there, code.

An important stage in the further evolution of music was the work of J. S. Bach and other composers of his time. The development of G., closely related to the homophonic harmonic. storehouse of music, is also largely due to polyphonic. warehouse (see Polyphony) and its interweaving with homophony. The music of the Viennese classics brought with it a powerful upsurge. A new, even more brilliant flourishing of gypsum was observed in the 19th century. in the music of romantic composers. This time was also marked by the achievements of the nat. music schools, for example. Russian classics. One of the brightest chapters in G.’s history is the music. impressionism (late 19th and early 20th centuries). Composers of this time already gravitate towards the modern. harmonic stage. evolution. Its latest phase (from about the 10-20s of the 20th century) is characterized by its achievements, in particular in the Sov. music.

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Ya. P. Sweelinck. Variations on “Mein Junges Leben hat ein End”. 6th variation.

Development of harmony with ser. 17th century to ser. 20th century it was very intense.

In the field of mode as a whole, a very significant evolution of the diatonic major and minor took place: all seventh chords began to be widely used, non-chords and chords of higher structures began to be used, variable functions became more active. The resources of diatonic science have not been exhausted even today. The modal richness of music, especially among the romantics, increased due to the unification of major and minor into the eponymous and parallel major-minor and minor-major; the possibilities of minor-major have been relatively little used so far. In the 19th century on a new basis, ancient diatonic letters were revived. frets. They brought a lot of fresh things to prof. music, expanded the possibilities of major and minor. Their flourishing was facilitated by modal influences emanating from the nat. nar. cultures (for example, Russian, Ukrainian and other peoples of Russia; Polish, Norwegian, etc.). From the 2nd floor. 19th century complex and bright in color chromatic modal formations began to be more widely used, the core of which was the tertian rows of major or minor triads and whole-tone sequences.

The unstable sphere of tonality was widely developed. The most distant chords began to be considered as elements of the tonal system, subordinate to the tonic. Tonic acquired dominance over deviations not only into closely related, but also into distant keys.

Great changes have also taken place in tonal relations. This can be seen in the example of the tonal plans of the most important forms. Along with quarto-quint and terts, second and tritone tonal ratios also came to the fore. In the tonal movement there is an alternation of tonal support and non-support, definite and relatively indefinite stages. The history of G., up to the present, confirms that the best, innovative and durable examples of creativity do not break with the harmony and tonality, which open up boundless prospects for practice.

Huge progress has been made in the field of modulation, in techniques, linking close and distant tonalities – gradual and fast (sudden). Modulations connect sections of the form, muses. Topics; at the same time, modulations and deviations began to penetrate deeper and deeper into the divisions, into the formation and deployment of the muses. Topics. Dep. modulation techniques have experienced a rich evolution. From the enharmonic modulations (see. Anharmonism), which became possible after the establishment of a uniform temperament, at first the mind based on anharmonism was used. seventh chord (Bach). Then modulations spread through an anharmonically interpreted dominant seventh chord, i.e., more complex enharmonics entered into practice. equality of chords, then enharmonic appeared. modulation through relatively rare SW. triads, as well as with the assistance of other chords. Each named species is enharmonic. modulation has a special line of evolution. Brightness, expressiveness, colorfulness, contrast-critical role of such modulations in production. demonstrate, for example, Bach’s Organ Fantasy in g-moll (section before the fugue), Confutatis from Mozart’s Requiem, Beethoven’s Pathetique Sonata (part 1, repetition of Grave at the beginning of development), introduction to Wagner’s Tristan and Isolde ( before the coda), Glinka’s Song of Margarita (before the reprise), Tchaikovsky’s Romeo and Juliet Overture (before the side part). There are compositions richly saturated with enharmonics. modulations:

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R. Schuman. “Night”, op. 12, no 5.

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Alteration gradually extended to all chords of the subdominant, dominant and double dominant, as well as to the chords of the remaining secondary dominants. From the end of the 19th century the fourth reduced step of the minor began to be used. Began to be used at the same time. alteration of one sound in different directions (doubly altered chords), as well as at the same time. alteration of two different sounds (twice altered chords):

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A. N. Scriabin. 3rd symphony.

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N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov. “Snow Maiden”. Action 3.

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N. Ya. Myaskovsky. 5th symphony. Part II.

In decomp. chords, the value of side tones (in other words, embedded or replacement sounds) gradually increases. In triads and their inversions, the sixth replaces the fifth or is combined with it. Then, in seventh chords, quarts replace thirds. As before, the source of chord formation was non-chord sounds, especially delays. For example, the dominant nonchord continues to be used in connection with detentions, but starting from Beethoven, especially in the 2nd half. 19th century and later, this chord was also used as an independent one. The formation of chords continues to be influenced by org. points — owing to funkts. mismatches of a bass and other voices. The chords are complex, saturated with tension, in which alteration and replacement sounds are combined, for example, the “Prometheus chord” a (consonance of the fourth structure).

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A. N. Scriabin. “Prometheus”.

The evolution of harmonica. means and techniques shown in connection with the enharmonic. modulation, is also found in the use of a simple major tonic. triad, as well as any chord. Noteworthy is the evolution of alterations, org. item, etc.

At the Russian classics of modal functions. G.’s possibilities are transformed into Ch. arr. in the folk-song spirit (variable mode, plagality, see Medieval modes). Rus. the school introduced new features in the use of diatonic side chords, in their second connections. Russian achievements are great. composers and in the field of chromatics; for example, programming stimulated the emergence of complex modal forms. The influence of the original G. rus. classics is enormous: it has spread to world creative practice, it is clearly reflected in Soviet music.

Some trends of modern. G. are manifested in the mentioned changes of a certain tonal presentation by a relatively indefinite one, in the “fouling” of chords with non-chord sounds, in an increase in the role of ostinato, and the use of parallels. voice leading, etc. However, enumeration of features is not enough for complete conclusions. Picture G. modern. realistic music cannot be made up of mechanical sums of observations about chronologically coexisting but very heterogeneous facts. In modern There are no such features of G. that would not have been prepared historically. In the most outstanding innovative works, for example. S. S. Prokofiev and D. D. Shostakovich, preserved and developed the modal-function. the basis of G., its connections with Nar. song; G. remains expressive, and the dominant role still belongs to the melody. Such is the process of modal development in the music of Shostakovich and other composers, or the process of expanding the boundaries of tonality by far, profound deviations in Prokofiev’s music. The tonality of deviations, especially the main ones. tonality, in plural cases are presented by Prokofiev clearly, tonically justified both in the theme and in its development. Historically famous. update sample. interpretation of tonality was created by Prokofiev in the Gavotte of the Classical Symphony.

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S. S. Prokofiev. “Classical Symphony”. Gavotte.

In G. owls. composers is reflected characteristic of owls. culture cross-fertilization music dec. nations. Russian continues to play a very important role. owls. music with its most valuable classical traditions.

II. G.’s consideration as an object of science covers modern. the doctrine of G. (1), the modal-functional theory (2), the evolution of the doctrines of G. (3).

1) Modern. the doctrine of G. consists of a systematic and historical. parts. Systematic part is built on the historical fundamentals and includes data on the development of otd. harmonic funds. To the general concepts of G., in addition to those described above (consonance-chord, modal function, voice leading), also belong to ideas about the natural scale, about music. systems (see System) and temperaments associated with physical and acoustic. preconditions for harmonic phenomena. In the fundamental concepts of dissonance consonances, there are two sides – acoustic and modal. The modal approach to the essence and perception of consonance and dissonance is changeable, evolving along with the music itself. In general, there is a tendency to soften the perception of the dissonance of consonances with an increase in their tension and diversity. The perception of dissonances always depends on the context of the work: after intense dissonances, less intense ones can lose some of their energy for the listener. There is a principle between consonance and stability, dissonance and instability. connection. Therefore, regardless of changes in the assessment of specific dissonances and consonances, these factors must be preserved, because otherwise the interaction of stability and instability will cease – a necessary condition for the existence of harmony and functionality. Finally, gravitation and resolution belong to the fundamental concepts of gravity. Musicians clearly feel the gravity of the modally unstable sounds of the melody, the voices of chords, entire chord complexes and the resolution of gravity into stable sounds. Although an exhaustive, generalizing scientific explanation of these real processes has not yet been given, the proposed partial descriptions and interpretations (for example, gravity and resolution of the leading tone) are quite convincing. In the doctrine about G. diatonic are investigated. frets (natural major and minor, etc.), diatonic. chords and their compounds, modal features of chromatic and chromatic. chords as derivatives of the diatonic. Deviations and alterations are especially studied. A large place in the doctrine of G. is given to modulations, to-rye are classified according to dec. features: the ratio of keys, modulation paths (gradual and sudden transitions), modulation techniques. In a systematic part of the doctrine of G., the above-mentioned diverse connections between G. and muses are analyzed. forms. At the same time, harmonic means are distinguished with a wide range of action, up to the coverage of the entire work, for example, an organ point and harmonic variation. The issues raised earlier are reflected in the systematic and historical sections of the doctrine of G.

2) Modern. lado-func. theory, which has a long and deep tradition, continues to develop along with the music. art. The durability of this theory is explained by its reliability, the correct explanation of the most important properties of the classical. and modern music. Function. theory, arising from the relationship of modal stability and instability, shows harmony, orderliness of diverse harmonics. means, the logic of harmonics. movement. Harmonic. manifestations of modal stability and instability in relation to major and minor are concentrated primarily around the tonic, dominant and subdominant. Changes in stability and instability are also found in the alternation of non-modulation (a long stay in a given key without c.-l. deviations from it) and modulation; in the alternation of tone-definite and tone-indefinite presentation. Such an extended interpretation of functionality in music is characteristic of modern music. the doctrine of G. This also includes elaborate generalizations about funkts. groups of chords and the possibility of func. substitutions, about higher-order functions, about basic and variable functions. Function. groups are formed only within two unstable functions. This follows from the essence of the mode and is confirmed by a number of observations: in the sequence of decomp. chords of this function. groups (for example, VI-IV-II steps), the feeling of one (in this case, subdomipant) function is preserved; when, after the tonic, i.e. e. Stage I, any other appears. chord, incl. h VI or III steps, there is a change of functions; the transition of the V step to the VI in an interrupted cadence means the delay of the permission, and not its replacement; sound community in itself does not form funkt. groups: two common sounds each have I and VI, I and III steps, but also VII and II steps – “extreme” representatives of dec. unstable functions. groups. Higher-order functions should be understood as funkt. relationships between tones. There are subdominant, dominant and tonic. tonality. They are replaced as a result of modulations and are arranged in a certain order in tonal plans. The modal function of the chord, its position in the harmony – tonicity or non-tonicity are found out from its muses. “environment”, in the alternation of chords that form a harmonic. turns, the most general classification of which in relation to the tonic and dominant is as follows: stability – instability (T – D); instability – stability (D – T); stability – stability (T – D – T); instability – instability (D – T – D). The logic of the root sequence of functions T – S – D – T, which asserts tonality, is deeply substantiated by X. Riemann: for example, in the sequence of C major and F major triads, their modal functions and tonality are not yet clear, but the appearance of the third, G major triad immediately clarifies the tonal meaning of each chord; the accumulated instability leads to stability – a C major triad, which is perceived as a tonic. Sometimes in the function analyzes G. due attention is not paid to the modal coloring, the originality of the sound, the structure of the chord, its circulation, location, etc. etc., as well as melodic. processes arising in the movement of G. These shortcomings, however, are determined by the narrow, unscientific application of modal functions. theory, not its essence. In the movement of modal functions, stability and instability activate each other. With excessive displacement of stability, instability also weakens. Its hypertrophy on the basis of extreme, unlimited complication G. leads to the loss of functionality and, at the same time, harmony and tonality. The emergence of fretlessness – atonalism (atonality) means the formation of disharmony (antiharmony). Rimsky-Korsakov wrote: “Harmony and counterpoint, representing a great variety of combinations of great diversity and complexity, undoubtedly have their limits, crossing which we find ourselves in the area of ​​disharmony and cacophony, in the area of ​​accidents, both simultaneous and successive” (N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov, On auditory delusions, Poln. Sobr. op., vol. II, M., 1963, p.

3) The emergence of the doctrine of G. was preceded by long. period of evolution of music theory, created in the ancient world. The doctrine of G. in essence began to take shape simultaneously with the realization of the role of G. in musical creativity. One of the founders of this doctrine was J. Tsarlino. In his fundamental work “Foundations of Harmony” (“Istituzioni harmoniche”, 1558), he speaks about the meaning of major and minor triads, their tertian tones. Both chords receive natural science justification. The deep impression made by the ideas of Tsarlino is evidenced by the controversy that unfolded around them (V. Galilei) and the desire of contemporaries to develop and popularize them.

For the theory of G. in modern. understanding of decisive importance acquired the works of Rameau, especially his captain. “Treatise on Harmony” (1722). Already in the title of the book it is indicated that this teaching rests on natural principles. The starting point of Rameau’s teaching is the sounding body. In the natural scale, given by nature itself and containing mazh. triad, Rameau sees nature. base G. Maj. the triad serves as a prototype of the tertian structure of chords. In the change of chords, Rameau first realized their functions, highlighting the harmonic. the center and its subordinate consonances (tonic, dominant, subdominant). Rameau asserts the idea of ​​major and minor keys. Pointing to the most important cadences (D – T, VI steps, etc.), he took into account the possibility of constructing them by analogy also from other diatonic. steps. This objectively already included a broader and more flexible approach to functionality, up to the thought of variable functions. It follows from Rameau’s reasoning that the dominant is generated by the tonic and that in cadenza VI the dominant returns to its source. The concept of foundation developed by Ramo. bass was associated with the awareness of harmony. functionality and, in turn, influenced the deepening of ideas about it. Foundation. basses are, first of all, basses of tonics, dominants and subdominants; in the case of inversion of chords (a concept also first introduced by Rameau), the foundation. bass is included. The concept of chord inversions could appear thanks to the position established by Rameau on the identity of the sounds of the same name dec. octaves Among the chords, Rameau distinguished between consonances and dissonances and pointed to the primacy of the former. He contributed to the clarification of ideas about changes in keys, about modulation in a functional interpretation (change in the value of the tonic), promoted uniform temperament, enriching modulation. capabilities. In general, Rameau established preim. harmonic perspective on polyphony. Classic Rameau’s theory, which generalized the centuries-old achievements of music, directly reflected the muses. creativity 1st floor. 18th century – an example of theoretical. concept, which in turn fruitfully influenced the muses. practice.

The rapid growth in the number of works on gypsum in the 19th century. was largely caused by the needs of training: it means. increase in the number of muses. educational institutions, the development of prof. music education and expansion of its tasks. Treatise S. S. Katel (1802), adopted by the Paris Conservatory as the main. leadership, for many years determined the nature of the general theoretical. views and teaching methods G. One of the original. Katel’s innovations were the idea of ​​large and small dominant non-chords as consonances that contain a number of other consonances (major and minor triads, mind triad, dominant seventh chord, etc.). This generalization is all the more remarkable because dominant nonchords were still rare at that time and, in any case, were considered as seventh chords with a delay. The special significance of Katel’s treatise for Russian. music B. V. Asafiev sees his life in the fact that through Z. Den he influenced Glinka. In foreign In the literature on rhythmic music, it is necessary to further highlight the work of F. J. Fetis (1844), which deepened the understanding of mode and tonality; the term “tonality” was first introduced in it. Fetis was the teacher of F. O. Gevart. The latter’s system of views on G. was deeply accepted and developed by G. L. Catoire. The textbook by F. E. Richter (1853) gained great fame. Reprints of it also appear in the 20th century; it was translated into many languages, including Russian (1868). Tchaikovsky gave a high appraisal of Richter’s textbook and used it in the preparation of his guide to gramophone. This textbook covered a wider range of diatonic and chromatic means of gramophone, voice-leading techniques, and systematized the practice of harmonic writing.

The largest step in the development of the doctrine of G. was made by the most universal theoretician of the late 19th – early 20th century. 19th century X. Riemann. To him belong great merits in the development of funkts. theory G. He introduced the term “function” into musicology. In the achievements of modern funkt. concept, which received new musical and creative. incentives, found the development of the most fruitful provisions of Riemann. Among them are: the idea of ​​funkt. groups of chords and their substitution within groups; function principle. kinship of keys and understanding of modulations from the point of view of the functions of tonic, dominant and subdominant; a look at the rhythm in general and at modulation in particular as deep shaping factors; harmonic logic analysis. development in cadence. Riemann did a lot in the field of acoustic and proper musical knowledge of the major (he failed to achieve similar success in substantiating the minor). He made a valuable contribution to the study of the problem of consonance and dissonance, offering a relatively broader and more flexible approach to its study. In essence, Riemann’s research in the field of geology concentrated and developed the deep ideas of Rameau, and reflected the achievements of a number of theorists of the 90th century. Attracting the attention of the Russian reader to the works of Riemann contributed to the appearance in the late 19s. 1889th century translations (then republished), in particular his books on modulation as the basis of musical form and work on harmony (on the tonal functions of chords). The popular textbook by E. Prout (XNUMX) and a series of other educational manuals by this author reflected a new stage in music theory, marked by the development and systematization of functional generalizations about G. This makes Prout related to Riemann.

Among the theoretical works of the beginning 20th century the doctrine of harmony by R. Louis and L. Thuil (1907) stands out – a book close to modern scientific and pedagogical practice: the authors put forward an expanded point of view on tonality, delve into such complex problems of harmony, such as anharmonism, and raise questions about special diatonic frets, etc., going beyond the scope of traditional works on G. topics. Louis and Tuile draw on the complex examples of music by Wagner, R. Strauss, and other contemporary composers for illustration.

An important place in the evolution of knowledge about G. is occupied by E. Kurt’s study of the harmony of the Romantics (1920). Kurt focuses on the harmony of R. Wagner, namely “Tristan and Isolde”, which is considered as critical. points in duration development of mode and tonality. Kurt’s ideas, substantiated in detail, are close to modern. G.’s theories: for example, thoughts about melodic. G.’s stimuli, the significance of the introduction of tone, the relationship between functionality and color, an extended interpretation of tonality, as well as alteration, sequence, etc. Despite the subtlety of Kurt’s musical observations, his book reflected philosophical and idealistic errors and contradictions of musical and historical views .

In the 20s. the works of G. Sh. Köklen appeared, which included the historical. sketch of geology from its beginnings in the early Middle Ages up to the present. Koeklen most fully responded to the need of the historical. knowledge of G. This tendency, which affected Kurt, was also revealed in a number of more private studies, for example. in works on the formation and evolution of chords – in the books of G. Haydon on the cadence quarter-sextakcord (1933) and P. Hamburger on the otd. subdominant and double dominant chords (1955), as well as in A. Casella’s commented reader, demonstrating the historical. development of cadence (1919). Particular attention should be paid to the latest capital studies of Y. Khominsky’s book on the history of H. and counterpoint (1958-62).

A. Schoenberg, who stood in his own work on the positions of atonality, in his scientific and pedagogical. works, for a number of reasons (eg, academic self-restraint) adhered to the tonal principle. His teaching on geology (1911) and later works in this area (40-50s) develop a wide range of problems of geology in the spirit of updated but stable traditions. The scientific and educational books of P. Hindemith, dedicated to G. (30-40s), also proceed from the idea of ​​tone. fundamentals of music, although the concept of tonality is interpreted in them very broadly and in a peculiar way. Modern theoretical Works that reject mode and tonality cannot, in essence, serve the knowledge of G., for G., as a historically conditioned phenomenon, is inseparable from the mode of tone. Such, for example, are works on dodecaphony, seriality, etc.

The development of music-theoretical. thought in Russia was closely connected with creativity. and pedagogical practice. The authors of the first mean. Russian works on gypsum were P. I. Tchaikovsky and N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov. In the owls A. N. Alexandrov, M. R. Gnesin, and others paid great attention to geology.

For the formation of scientific and theoretical. The statements of composers contained, for example, in Rimsky-Korsakov’s Chronicle of My Musical Life, and in the autobiographies and articles of N. Ya. Myaskovsky, S. S. Prokofiev, and D. D. Shostakovich, are fruitful. They talk about G.’s connections with the music. form, about the reflection in G. of arts. the idea of ​​compositions, about the vitality of art. realistic. principles, about folk, nat. roots of music language, etc. G.’s questions are touched upon in the epistolary heritage of Russian. composers (for example, in the correspondence of P. I. Tchaikovsky and HA Rimsky-Korsakov about the textbook of G. the latter). From the works of the pre-revolutionary. Russian Valuable articles by G. A. Laroche (60-70s of the 19th century) are singled out by critics according to the topic. He defended the need to study the early music of the pre-Bach time, substantiated the historical. approach to G. In the works of Laroche persistently (albeit somewhat one-sidedly) the idea of ​​melodic. the origins of G. This brings Laroche closer to Tchaikovsky and to some modern authors. G.’s scientific concepts, for example. with Kurt and Asafiev. A. N. Serov has works directly related to harmony, for example. informative article on the subject of chords. V. V. Stasov (1858) pointed out the prominent role played in the music of the 19th century. special diatonic (church.) modes contributing to its artistic wealth. Important for the doctrine of G. was expressed by him (in the biography of M. I. Glinka) the idea that fabulously fantastic. plots contribute to the historical. Progress G. In Russian belonging to the classics. music critics – Serov, Stasov and Laroche analyzes of muses. works, in particular L. Beethoven, F. Chopin, M. I. Glinka and P. I. Tchaikovsky, there are many valuable observations on G.

The period of prof. learning G. in Russian. educational institutions in Russian. books opens with textbooks by Tchaikovsky (1872) and Rimsky-Korsakov. The well-known textbook by Rimsky-Korsakov (“Practical Course of Harmony”, 1886) was preceded by its earlier version (“Textbook of Harmony”, published by lithographic method in 1884-85 and republished in collected works). In Russia, these textbooks marked the beginning of the doctrine of G. in the proper sense of the word. Both books responded to requests from Rus. conservatories.

Tchaikovsky’s textbook focuses on voice leading. G.’s beauty, according to Tchaikovsky, depends on melodic. virtues of moving voices. Under this condition, artistically valuable results can be achieved with simple harmonics. means. It is significant that in the study of modulation, Tchaikovsky assigns the primary role to voice leading. At the same time, Tchaikovsky clearly proceeds from modal-functional concepts, although he (as well as Rimsky-Korsakov) does not use the expression “function”. Tchaikovsky, in fact, approached the idea of ​​higher-order functions: he deduces a func- tion. chord dependencies of the tonic, dominant and subdominant from the connections of the corresponding. keys that are in a quarto-fifth ratio.

Rimsky-Korsakov’s textbook of harmony has gained wide distribution in Russia and considerable popularity abroad. They continue to be used in institutions of the USSR. In the book of Rimsky-Korsakov, scientific achievements were combined with an exemplary sequence of presentation, its strict expediency, selection among harmonics. means of the most typical, necessary. The order established by Rimsky-Korsakov for mastering the fundamentals of grammar, which largely forms the nature of scientific views on the world of harmonics. funds, received wide recognition and largely retained its importance. A major scientific achievement of the textbook was the theory of kinship (affinity) of keys: “Close tunings, or being in the 1st degree of affinity to a given tuning, are considered 6 tunings, whose tonic triads are in this tuning” (HA Rimsky-Korsakov, Practical Harmony Textbook, Complete collection of works, vol. IV, M., 1960, p. 309). This generalization, essentially functional, has had an impact on world music. science.

Like-minded people and followers of Tchaikovsky and Rimsky-Korsakov in the musical-theoretical. area, in the training of G. were such musicians as A. S. Arensky, J. Vitol, R. M. Glier, N. A. Hubert, V. A. Zolotarev, A. A. Ilyinsky, M. M. Ippolitov-Ivanov, PP Keneman, P. D. Krylov, N. M. Ladukhin, A. K. Lyadov, N. S. Morozov, A. I. Puzyrevsky, L. M. Rudolf, N. F. Solovyov, N. A. Sokolov, HH Sokolovsky , M. O. Steinberg, P. F. Yuon and others.

S. I. Taneev also arrived at valuable generalizations about letters that retain their full significance in the introduction to his study of the counterpoint of strict writing (1909). He points out that mazh.-min. the tonal system “…groups rows of chords around one central tonic chord, allows the central chords of one to change during the piece (deviation and modulation) and groups all minor keys around the main one, and the key of one department affects the key of another, the beginning of the piece affects its conclusion” (S. Taneev, Mobile counterpoint of strict writing, M., 1959, p. 8). The trace points to the evolution of mode, functionality. S. Taneyev’s position: “The tonal system gradually expanded and deepened by spreading the circle of tonal harmonies, including more and more new combinations in it and establishing a tonal connection between harmonies belonging to distant systems” (ibid., p. 9). These words contain thoughts about the development of G. that preceded Taneyev and his contemporary, and the paths of its progress are outlined. But Taneyev also draws attention to destructive processes, pointing out that “… the destruction of tonality leads to the decomposition of the musical form” (ibid.).

Means. stage in the history of the science of G., wholly owned by Sov. era, are the works of G. L. Catoire (1924-25). Catuar created the first in the Sov. Union of theoretical course G., summarized Russian. and international scientific an experience. Associated with the teachings of Gevaart, Catoire’s course is notable for its interesting and extensive development of fundamental problems. Having music. sounds by fifths, Catoire, depending on the number of fifth steps, receives three systems: diatonic, major-minor, chromatic. Each system covers the range of chords inherent in it, in the formation of which the principle of melodic is emphasized. connections. Catoire takes a progressive view of tonality, as evidenced, for example, by his treatment of deviations (“mid-tonal deviations”). In a new way, more deeply developed the doctrine of modulation, which Catoire subdivides mainly into modulation through a common chord and with the help of anharmonism. In an effort to comprehend more complex harmonics. means, Catoire points out, in particular, the role of secondary tones in the emergence of certain consonances. The issue of sequences, their connections with org. paragraph.

Practical harmony course in two parts of the team of teachers Mosk. conservatory I. I. Dubovsky, S. V. Evseev, V. V. Sokolov and I. V. Sposobina (1934-1935) occupies a prominent place in the Soviet. music-theoretical. science and pedagogy; in the revised form by the authors, it is known as the “Textbook of Harmony”, reprinted many times. All positions are backed by art. samples, ch. arr. from the classic music. Connection with creative practice on such a scale had not previously been encountered either in the domestic or foreign educational literature. Questions about non-chord sounds, alterations, the interaction of major and minor, diatonic were covered in detail and in many ways in a new way. frets in Russian music. For the first time, questions of harmonics were systematized. presentation (texture). In both works, the moscow brigade. conservatory scientific continuity with the traditions of the old Russian textbooks and the best foreign works is obvious. One of the authors of the “brigade” work – I. V. Sposobin created a special. the university course of G. (1933-54), reflected in the first owl compiled and published by him. program (1946); Very important and new was the introduction of a section on the history of Georgia—from its origins to the present. Among the department Sposobin’s achievements in the field of grammar are further distinguished: a new theory of the kinship of keys, built on the fret-function. principles, the development of the idea of ​​functions of a higher order, a new versatile systematics in the field of anharmonism, the justification of a peculiar group of modes (“dominant modes”), a detailed development of the issue of special diatonic. (old) frets.

Yu.N. Tyulin (1937) became the author of a new harmonious concept of gypsum. It was improved and expanded, in particular, in the work on the theoretical. basics of G., performed by him jointly with N. G. Privano (1956). Tyulin’s concept, based on the best achievements of the fatherlands. and world science, characterize the comprehensive coverage of harmonics. problematics, the enrichment of G.’s theory with new concepts and terms (for example, the concepts of chord phonism, melodic-harmonic modulation, etc.), a wide musical-historical. base. Tyulin’s major scientific generalizations include the theory of variable functions; adjacent to the classic traditions of musicology, this theory can be applied to music. form as a whole. According to this theory, chord functions are found directly. their relationship with tonic. chord. In the formation of variable functions, the c.-l. unstable triad of ladotonality (major or minor) receives a private, local tonic. meaning, forming a new fret center of gravity. An illustration of variables (according to other terminology – local) functions can be rethinking the relationship of the VI-II-III steps of the natural major:

Harmony |

The theory of variable functions explains the formation in the product. passages in special diatonic frets and diatonic deviations, fixes attention on the ambiguity of chords. This theory demonstrates the interaction of the components of the muses. language – meter, rhythm and G.: underlining non-tonic. (from the point of view of the main functions) of a chord with a strong beat of a measure, a larger duration favors its perception as a local tonic. Sposobin and Tyulin are among the outstanding figures who headed the schools of owls. theorists.

One of the most prominent Soviet muses. scientists B. L. Yavorsky, trying to understand the works of A. N. Skryabin, N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov, F. Liszt, K. Debussy, which are complex in terms of G., studied a whole complex of harmonics in an extremely original way. problems. Theoretical Yavorsky’s system covers, in a broad sense, not only the questions of G., but also the problems of music. form, rhythm, meter. Yavorsky’s ideas are set forth in his works, which appeared in the 10-40s, they were also reflected in the works of his students, for example. S. V. Protopopova (1930). In the sphere of G. Yavorsky’s attention was attracted by Ch. arr. fret; the popular name for his concept is the theory of modal rhythm. Yavorsky put forward a theoretical the concepts of a number of modes (more precisely, modal formations) used in the works of the mentioned composers, for example. reduced mode, increased mode, chain mode, etc. The unity of Yavorsky’s theory follows from the modal primary element adopted by him – the tritone. Thanks to the activities of Yavorsky, some important musical-theoretical works became widespread. concepts and terms (although Yavorsky often interpreted them not in the generally accepted sense), for example, the idea of ​​stability and instability in music. Yavorsky’s views repeatedly led to clashes of opinion, most acute in the 20s. Despite the contradictions, Yavorsky’s teaching had a serious and profound impact on Soviet and foreign musical science.

B. V. Asafiev, the greatest Soviet musical scientist, enriched the science of rhythmic music primarily with his theory of intonation. Asafiev’s thoughts about G. are concentrated in his most important theoretical study of music. form, the 2nd part of which is dedicated to preim. questions of intonation (1930-47). The creation of G., as well as other components of the muses. language, according to Asafiev, requires creativity from composers. sensitivity to intonation. environment, prevailing intonations. Asafiev studied the origin and evolution of rhythmic music in its own harmonic (vertical, see vertical) and melodic (horizontal, see horizontal) aspects. For him, G. is a system of “resonators – amplifiers of the tones of the mode” and “cooling lava of Gothic polyphony” (B. Asafiev, Musical Form as a Process, book 2, Intonation, M.-L., 1947, p. 147 and 16). Asafiev especially emphasized melodic. the roots and features of G., in particular in the melodious G. Rus. classics. In Asafiev’s statements about functional theory, criticism of its schematic, one-sided application stands out. Asafiev himself left many examples of fine functional analysis by G.

Acoustic representative. directions in the study of G. was N. A. Garbuzov. In his captain. labor (1928-1932) developed the idea of ​​acoustic. derivation of modal consonances from several. grounds; overtones generated not by one, but by several. original sounds, form consonances. Garbuzov’s theory returns to the idea expressed back in the era of Rameau, and in an original way continues one of the traditions of musicology. In the 40-50s. a number of works by Garbuzov about the zonal nature of muses are published. hearing, i.e., the perception of pitch, tempo and rhythm, loudness, timbre and intonation. ratios within certain quantities. range; this sound quality is retained for perception throughout the corresponding zone. These provisions, which have great cognitive as well as practical. interest, were proved experimentally by Garbuzov.

Acoustic research stimulated research in the field of musical scales, temperament, and also prompted searches in the field of instrument design. This was reflected in the activities of A. S. Ogolevets. His major musical and theoretical works caused a thorough scientific discussion (1947); a number of the author’s provisions have been subjected to versatile criticism.

To prominent owls. scientists and educators generations – specialists in gynecology also belong to Sh. S. Aslanishvili, F. I. Aerova, S. S. Grigoriev, I. I. Dubovsky, S. V. Evseev, V. N. Zelinsky, Yu. G. Kon, S. E. Maksimov, A. F. Mutli, T. F. Muller, N. G. Privano, V. N. Rukavishnikov, P. B. Ryazanov, V. V. Sokolov, A. A. Stepanov, V. A. Taranushchenko, M. D. Tits, I. A. Tyutmanov, Yu. N. Kholopov, V. M. Tsendrovsky, N. S. Chumakov, M. A. Etinger and others. named and other figures continue to successfully develop the best, progressive traditions of the study of G.

When studying modern G. in accordance with the principle of historicism, it is necessary to take into account its historical. development in music and the history of the teachings about G. It is necessary to differentiate the various chronologically coexisting modern. music styles. It is required to study not only diverse prof. genres of music, but also Nar. creativity. Especially necessary are contacts with all departments of theoretical. and historical musicology and assimilation of the best achievements abroad. musicology. On the success of studying the language of modern in the USSR. music is evidenced by works devoted to historical prerequisites of modern G. (for example, an article by Tyulin, 1963), its modal and tonal features (for example, a number of articles by A. N. Dolzhansky on the music of Shostakovich, 40-50s), studies of monographic. type (book by Yu. N. Kholopov about S. S. Prokofiev, 1967). Monographic genre in the study of geology, developing in the Sov. Union since the 40s, is reflected in the problems of a number of collections on the style of S. S. Prokofiev and D. D. Shostakovich (1962-63), on the music of the 20th century. in general (1967). In a book about contemporary harmony S. S. Skrebkov (1965) emphasized the problem of thematic. G.’s values ​​in connection with a tonality, otd. consonances, melody (based on its leading role), texture; This range of questions is being studied in late Scriabin, Debussy, Prokofiev, Shostakovich. Public discussions that were indicative of the development of science in the USSR proved to be useful for the theory of G. On the pages of the journal Sov. music” there were discussions of polytonality (1956-58) and a wide range of problems of modern. G. (1962-64).

For the knowledge of G. are of great importance and theoretical. works devoted not only to harmonica. problems, including the works of the classics of Rus. musicology, numerous works by B. V. Asafiev, textbooks and uch. allowances for music-theoretical. objects and composition, for example. L. A. Mazel and V. A. Zuckerman – according to the analysis of music. works (1967), I. Ya. Ryzhkin and L. A. Mazel – on the history of musical-theoretical. teachings (1934-39), S. S. Skrebkova – in polyphony (1956), S. V. Evseeva – in Russian. polyphony (1960), Vl. V. Protopopova – on the history of polyphony (1962-65), M. R. Gnessin – on practical. compositions (composing music, 1962); works on melody, eg. its general study by L. A. Mazel (1952), the study of Rimsky-Korsakov’s melody by S. S. Grigoriev (1961); monographs on the works, eg. about the fantasy f-moll Chopin – L. A. Mazel (1937), about “Kamarinskaya” Glinka – V. A. Zukkerman (1957), about “Ivan Susanin” Glinka – Vl. V. Protopopov (1961), about late operas by Rimsky-Korsakov – M. R. Gnesin (1945-1956), L. V. Danilevich (1958), D. B. Kabalevsky (1953).

III. The idea of ​​G. as account. the subject includes the following. questions: music G.’s education and place in the training of musicians (1), forms and methods of G.’s teaching (2).

1) In the system of owls. prof. music Great attention is paid to G.’s education at all levels of education: in children’s music. eleven-year schools, in music. schools and universities. There are two types of G.’s training – spec. and general courses. The former are intended for the training of composers, theorists and music historians (musicologists), the latter for the training of performing musicians. Continuity has been established in G.’s education from the lower levels of education to the older ones. However, university education provides, in addition to the study of new topics, and the deepening of knowledge acquired earlier, which ensures the accumulation of prof. skill. The sequence of teaching G. as a whole is reflected in the account. plans, programs and admission requirements for admission to the account. establishments approved by the state. bodies. On the example of G.’s teaching, great qualities are visible. and quantities. the successes achieved by the musicians. education in the USSR. G.’s teaching is conducted taking into account modal and intonation. peculiarities of music owls. peoples. Main part of the account practical time is spent. classes. Since the 30s. on G. lectures are given, the most widely represented in high school special. courses. In the teaching of G., the general principles of teaching music in the USSR are manifested: an orientation towards creativity. practice, relationship uch. subjects in the learning process. Coordination of G.’s training, for example, with solfeggio training is carried out throughout both courses in all schools. establishments. Success in teaching music education work. hearing (see. Musical ear) and in teaching G. are achieved in fruitful interaction.

2) Through the efforts of owls. teachers developed a rich, flexible methodology for teaching G., extending to all three generally accepted types of practical. works:

a) In written works, the solution of harmonics is combined. tasks and all kinds of creativity. experiments: composing preludes, variations (on one’s own and a theme set by the teacher), etc. Such tasks, offered primarily to musicologists (theorists and historians), contribute to the convergence of musical-theoretical. learning with creativity practice. The same trend can be traced in the work on tasks according to G.

b) Harmonic. analyzes of music (including written ones) should accustom oneself to the accuracy of formulations, draw attention to the details of musical composition and, at the same time, evaluate musical composition as art. means to realize its role among other muses. funds. harmonic analysis is also used in other courses, theoretical. and historical, for example. in the course of music analysis. works (see Musical Analysis).

c) In decomp. training exercises according to G. on the fp. in modern pedagogy, too, there is a methodologically expedient approach to practice. Such, for example, are the assignments for the implementation of the fp. modulations in defined. tempo, size and shape (usually in the form of a period).

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V. O. Berkov

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