Free style, free writing
nope free movement, harmonic counterpoint
1) The concept that combines into a historical whole polyphony, music (see Polyphony) decomp. creative directions, which replaced the strict style – the polyphony of the High Renaissance. In musicology 19-beginning. 20th century the term “S. With.” polyphonic was determined. lawsuit 17 – ser. 18th centuries; to the beginning 20th century a broader interpretation of the term “S. s”, which now denotes all polyphonic phenomena from the beginning of the 17th century. up to the present.
Approval of S.’s norms with. in the 17th century was associated with a sharp turning point in the development of the entire Western European. lawsuit caused by a number of historical. reasons (see Baroque, Renaissance). A new figurative structure of music is taking shape: composers discover its limitless possibilities in the embodiment of internal. the world of man. It is impossible to give an exact chronology. the border between the eras of S. s. and strict style. S. s. was prepared by the achievements of the old wok masters. polyphony, and some of its creatures. features (eg, the predominance of major and minor, interest in instr. music) are found in many. prod. strict style. On the other hand, the masters of S. s. use the experience and techniques of their predecessors (for example, imitative technique, complex counterpoint, methods of transforming thematic material). T. o., S. s. does not cancel the strict style, but absorbs it, modifying the polyphony of the 15th-16th centuries. according to art. time tasks.
S. s. reveals its history. independence primarily as instrumental polyphony. Although for some time in instr. prod. dependence on the choral strict style remained (noticeable, for example, in the texture of J. Sweelinka’s organ works), composers began to use the polyphonic music that they had discovered. tool capabilities. Free instr. the element determines the ardor of the muses. J. Frescobaldi’s speeches in fugues for cembalos, predetermines the oratorical pathos of the organ op. D. Buxtehude, is easily guessed in the special plasticity of A. Vivaldi’s concertos. The highest point of development polyphonic. instrumentalism 17-18 centuries. reaches in the works of J. S. Bach – in his Op. for solo violin and with clavier, in the fugues of the Well-Tempered Clavier (vol. 1, 1722, vol. 2, 1744), which are strikingly diverse in terms of revealing polyphony, the possibilities of the instrument. In the work of the masters of S. s. wok. the means of expression were enriched under the influence of instrumentalism; therefore the style of such, for example, op. as Gloria (No 4), Sanctus (No 20) or Agnus Dei (No 23) in Bach’s mass in h-moll, where the wok. parties, in principle, do not differ from instrumental ones, they are called mixed wok.-instrumental.
The appearance of S. s. primarily determines the melody. To the choir polyphony of strict writing, the sound volume of melodies was limited by the range of the choir. votes; melodies, rhythmically ordered and free from squareness, were composed of phrases decomp. length; their measured deployment was dominated by a smooth movement along the steps of the diatonic. scale, when the sounds seemed to overflow one into another. On the contrary, in the melody of S. s. (both in fugues and in various types of non-fugue polyphony) the range of voices is actually not limited, any interval sequences can be used in melodies, incl. jumps to hard-to-tone wide and dissonant intervals. Comparison of examples from Op. Palestrina and from the works related to S. s. shows these differences:
Palestrina. Benedictus from the Mass “O magnum misterium” (upper voice).
C. Monteverdi. “The Coronation of Poppea”, 2nd act (the theme of the choir of the household).
D. Buxtehude. Organ chacona in C major (bass voice).
A. In Stanchinsky. Canon for fp. (beginning of proposta)
For S.’s melodies with. characterized by dependence on harmonics. warehouse, which is often expressed in figuration (including sequential structure); melody, movement is directed from within the harmonica. sequence:
J. S. Bach. Suite No 3 for cello solo. Courant.
J. S. Bach. Fugue theme G-dur from the 2nd volume of the Well-Tempered Clavier.
This kind of movement informs the melody of S. s. harmonic full sonority: in melodies so-called. hidden voices, and the outlines of harmonies easily stand out from the jumps in chord sounds. sequences.
G. F. Handel. Trio Sonata g-moll op. 2 No 2, finale (parts continuo omitted).
J. S. Bach. Organ fugue a-moll, theme.
Harmonic scheme of hidden voicing in the theme of organ fugue a-moll by J. S. Bach.
Hidden voices “inscribed” in the melody can counterpoint (and in the example below), sometimes taking on the form of a metric-reference line (typical for many themes of Bach’s fugues; see b) and even imitation (c):
J. S. Bach. Partita No 1 for solo violin. Courant.
J. S. Bach. Fugue theme Cis-dur from the 1st volume of the Well-Tempered Clavier.
W. A. Mozart. “Magic Flute”, overture (beginning of Allegro).
The fullness of the hidden voices influenced the establishment of 3- and 4-voices as the norm of S. with .; if in the era of strict style they often wrote in 5 or more voices, then in the era of S. with. The 5-voice is relatively rare (for example, among the 48 fugues of Bach’s Well-Tempered Clavier, there are only 2 five-voice ones – cis-moll and b-moll from the 1st volume), and more voices are almost an exception.
In contrast to the strict letter of the ilk in the early samples of S. s. freely placed pauses were used, decorating the figures, various syncopations. S. s. allows the use of any duration and in any proportions. The specific implementation of this provision depends on metrorhythm. norms of this music-historical. era. The ordered polyphony of baroque and classicism is characterized by clear rhythmic. drawings with a regular (equivalent) metric. Romantic. the immediacy of the statement in the claim-ve 19 – early. 20th century It is also expressed in the freedom of placement of accents relative to the barline, characteristic of the polyphony of R. Schumann, F. Chopin, R. Wagner. For polyphony of the 20th century. typical are the use of irregular meters (sometimes in the most complex polymetric combinations, as, for example, in the polyphonic music of I.F. Stravinsky), the rejection of accentuation (for example, in some polyphonic works by composers of the new Viennese school), the use special forms of polyrhythm and polymetry (for example, O. Messiaen) and other metrorhythmic. innovations.
One of the important features of S. s. – his close relationship with Nar. music genres. Nar. music also found use in the polyphony of strict writing (for example, as cantus firmus), but the masters were more consistent in this respect. To Nar. songs were addressed by many composers of the 17th and 18th centuries (creating, in particular, polyphonic variations on folk themes). Especially rich and varied are the genre sources – German, Italian, Slavic – in Bach’s polyphony. These connections are the fundamental basis of the figurative certainty of polyphonic. thematism of S. s., the clarity of his melodic. language. Concrete polyphonic. those in S. with. was also determined by the use of melodic-rhythmic, typical for its time. figures, intonational “formulas”. In close dependence on genre specificity is another feature of S. s. – development within its framework of contrasting polyphony. In a strict style, the possibilities of contrasting polyphony were limited, in S. s. it is of the utmost importance, which sharply distinguishes it from the strict style. Contrasting polyphony is characteristic of music. Bach’s dramaturgy: examples are found in org. arrangements of chorales, in arias where a chorale is introduced, and the contrast of voices can be emphasized by their different genre affiliation (for example, in No. 1 from cantata No. 68, the melody of the chorale is accompanied by an orc. theme in the character of the Italian Siciliana); in dram. episodes, the opposition of the parties reaches the limit (for example, in No. 1, in the initial part of No. 33 of the Matthew Passion). Later, contrast polyphony is widely used in opera productions. (for example, in ensembles of operas by W. A. Mozart). Evidence of the importance of contrast polyphony in S. s. is that in imitation. forms, the opposition plays the role of an accompanying, complementary voice. In the era of strict style, there was no concept of polyphony. themes, concentrated in one voice, and polyphony was composed of successive. deployment relatively neutral in intonation. regarding the material. More individual in all manifestations of the music of S. s. is based on a relief, easily recognizable theme at each presentation. The theme is intonationally characteristic, containing the main. music thought, the thesis to be developed, serves as the basis of polyphonic. prod. In the music of composers of the 17th-18th centuries. (meaning primarily the fugue) 2 types of themes have developed: homogeneous, based on the development of one or more non-contrasting and closely related motifs (for example, the themes of c-moll fugues from the 1st and 2nd volumes of Bach’s Well-Tempered Clavier ), and contrasting, based on the opposition of different motives (for example, the theme of the g-moll fugue from the 1st volume of the same cycle). In contrasting topics, he will express the most. turns and noticeable rhythmic. figures are more often located at the beginning, forming melodic. theme core. In contrasting and homogeneous themes means. the role is played by melodic, more often sequential development, for example:
I. S. Bach. Organ fugue in C major, theme.
Expression of themes and their melodies. relief among composers of the 17th-18th centuries. largely depended on unstable (often reduced) intervals, which are common at the beginning of construction:
J. S. Bach. A-moll fugue theme from the 2nd volume of the Well-Tempered Clavier.
J. S. Bach. Fugue theme cis-moll from the 1st volume of the Well-Tempered Clavier.
J. S. Bach. Mass in h minor, Kyrie, No 3 (fugue theme).
J. S. Bach. Matthew Passion, No 54 (theme).
If in a strict style strettic presentation prevailed, then the composers of the 17th-18th centuries. the theme is completely stated in one voice, and only after that the imitating voice enters, and the beginner proceeds to the counterposition. The semantic primacy of the theme is even more obvious if its motives underlie all other elements of the fugue—opposites, interludes; the predominant position of the topic in S. s. set off by interludes, which occupy a subordinate position in comparison with the conduct of the theme and are often intonationally dependent on it.
All the most important qualities of S. s. – melodic, harmonic features, features of shaping – follow from the prevailing tonal system, primarily major and minor. Themes, as a rule, are distinguished by complete tonal certainty; deviations are expressed melodic-chromatic. harmonic turnovers; passing chromatisms are found in the polyphony of a later time under the influence of modern. harmonic ideas (for example, in the piano fugue cis-moll op. 101 No 2 Glazunov). The direction of modulations in topics is limited by the dominant; modulation within the theme into distant keys – the achievement of the 20th century. (for example, in the fugue from the development of Myaskovsky’s Symphony No. 21, the theme begins in C minor with a Dorian tinge, and ends in gis minor). An important manifestation of the modal organization of S. s. is a tonal response, the principles of which were already determined in ricercar and early examples of fugue.
J. S. Bach. “The Art of the Fugue”, Contrapunctus I.
J. S. Bach. Fugue Es-dur from the 1st volume of the Well-Tempered Clavier.
The modal system of major and minor in S. s. dominates, but is not the only one. Composers did not abandon the peculiar expressiveness of natural diatonic. frets (see, for example, the fugue Credo No 12 from Bach’s mass in h-moll, the 3rd movement “in der lydischer Tonart” of L. Beethoven’s quartet No 15, marked by the influence of a strict style). Of particular interest in them are the masters of the 20th century. (e.g., fugue from Ravel’s suite “The Tomb of Couperin”, many fugues by D. D. Shostakovich). Polyphonic prod. are created on a modal basis, characteristic of decomp. nat. music cultures (for example, polyphonic episodes of the symphony for strings and timpani by E. M. Mirzoyan reveal the Armenian national color, piano and organizational fugues by G. A. Muschel are associated with the Uzbek national musical art). In the work of many composers of the 20th century the organization of major and minor becomes more complicated, special tonal forms arise (for example, the total-tonal system of P. Hindemith), various are used. types of poly- and atonality.
Composers of the 17th-18th centuries widely used forms, partly formed back in the era of strict writing: motet, variations (including those based on ostinato), canzona, ricercar, decomp. kind of imitation. choral forms. To actually S. with. include fugue and numerous. forms, in which polyphonic. presentation interacts with the homophonic. In fugues of the 17th-18th centuries. with their clear modal-functional relations, one of the most important features of the polyphony of the S. s. – close height dependence of voices, their harmonies. attraction to each other, the desire to merge into a chord (this kind of balance between the polyphonic independence of voices and the harmonically significant vertical characterizes, in particular, the style of J. S. Bach). This S. s. 17th-18th centuries differs markedly both from the polyphony of strict writing (where functionally weakly connected sound verticals are represented by the addition of several pairs of contrapunctuated voices), and from the new polyphony of the 20th century.
An important trend of shaping in the music of the 17th-18th centuries. – succession of contrasting parts. This leads to the emergence of a historically stable cycle of prelude – fugue (sometimes instead of prelude – fantasy, toccata; in some cases, a three-part cycle is formed, for example, org. toccata, Adagio and Bach’s C-dur fugue). On the other hand, works arise where the contrasting parts are linked together (for example, in the org. work. Buxtehude, in the works of Bach: a three-part org. fantasy G-dur, a triple 5-voice org. fugue Es-dur are actually varieties of contrast-composite form).
In the music of the Viennese classics, the polyphony of S. s. plays a very significant, and in the later works of Beethoven – a leading role. Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven use polyphony to reveal the essence and meaning of a homophonic theme, they involve polyphony. funds in the process of symphony. development; imitation, complex counterpoint become the most important methods of thematic. work; in Beethoven’s music, polyphony turns out to be one of the most powerful means of forcing drama. tension (for example, the fugato in the “Funeral March” from the 3rd symphony). The music of the Viennese classics is characterized by polyphonization of texture, as well as contrasts of homophonic and polyphonic. presentation. Polyphonization can reach such a high level that a mixed homophonic-polyphonic is formed. type of music, in which a swarm is noticeable defined. polyphonic tension line sections (the so-called large polyphonic form). Polyphonic the episodes “encrusted” into a homophonic composition are repeated with tonal, contrapuntal, and other changes, and thus receive art. development within the framework of the whole as a single form, “counterpunctuating” the homophonic one (a classic example is the finale of Mozart’s G-dur quartet, K.-V. 387). Large polyphonic form in numerous variants is widely used in the 19-20 centuries. (e.g., overture from Wagner’s The Mastersingers of Nuremberg, Myaskovsky’s Symphony No. 21). In Beethoven’s work of the late period, a complex type of polyphonized sonata allegro was defined, where homophonic presentation is either completely absent or does not have a noticeable effect on the muses. warehouse (first parts of the pianoforte sonata No 32, 9th symphony). This Beethovenian tradition follows in separate Op. I. Brahms; it is fully reborn in many ways. the most complex products 20th century: in the final choir No. 9 from the cantata “After reading the Psalm” by Taneyev, the 1st part of the symphony “The Artist Mathis” by Hindemith, the 1st part of the symphony No. 5 by Shostakovich. The polyphonization of the form also had an impact on the organization of the cycle; the finale began to be seen as a place of polyphonic synthesis. elements of the previous presentation.
After Beethoven, composers rarely used traditional music. polyphonic. forms C. s., but compensated for this by the innovative use of polyphonic. funds. So, in connection with the general trend of music in the 19th century. to figurative concreteness and picturesqueness, the fugue and fugato obey the tasks of the muses. figurativeness (for example, the “Battle” at the beginning of the symphony “Romeo and Juliet” by Berlioz), are sometimes interpreted in fantastic. (for example, in the opera The Snow Maiden by Rimsky-Korsakov, the fugato depicts a growing forest; see p. number 253), comma. plan (comic. fugue in the “Fight Scene” from the finale of the 2nd act of Wagner’s “Mastersingers of Nuremberg”, the grotesque fugue in the finale of Berlioz’s “Fantastic Symphony”, etc.). There are new complex species characteristic of the 2nd floor. 19 in. synthesis of forms: for example, Wagner in the introduction to the opera Lohengrin combines the features of polyphonic. variations and fugues; Taneyev combines the properties of fugue and sonata in the 1st part of the cantata “John of Damascus”. One of the achievements of polyphony in the 19th century. was a symphonization of the fugue. The principle of the fugue (gradual, without sharp figurative comparisons, the disclosure of figurative intonation. the content of the theme, aimed at its approval) was revised by Tchaikovsky in the 1st part of suite No 1. In Russian music, this tradition was developed by Taneyev (see, for example, the final fugue from the cantata “John of Damascus”). Inherent in music. art-wu 19th century. the desire for specificity, originality of the image led to the polyphony of S. with. to the widespread use of combinations of contrasting themes. The combination of leitmotifs is the most important component of music. Wagner’s dramaturgy; many examples of combinations of diverse themes can be found in Op. Russian composers (for example, “Polovtsian Dances” from the opera “Prince Igor” by Borodin, “The Battle at Kerzhents” from the opera “The Legend of the Invisible City of Kitezh and the Maiden Fevronia” by Rimsky-Korsakov, “Waltz” from the ballet “Petrushka” by Stravinsky, etc. ). Decreasing the value of the simulation forms in 19th century music. balanced by the development of new polyphonic. receptions (in all respects free, allowing for a change in the number of votes). Among them – polyphonic. “branching” of themes of a melodious nature (for example, in etude XI gis-moll from Schumann’s “Symphonic etudes”, in the nocturne cis-moll op. 27 No 1 by Chopin); in this sense b. A. Zuckerman speaks of “lyric. polyphony” by Tchaikovsky, referring to melodic. coloring lyric. themes (for example, in the side part of the 1st part of the 4th symphony or during the development of the main the themes of the slow movement of the 5th symphony); Tchaikovsky’s tradition was adopted by Taneyev (for example, the slow parts of the symphony in c-moll and in piano. quintet g-moll), Rachmaninoff (e.g., piano. prelude Es-dur, slow part of the poem “The Bells”), Glazunov (main. themes of the 1st part of the concerto for violin and orchestra). New polyphonic reception was also “polyphony of layers”, where counterpoint is not separate. melodic voices, but melodic and harmonic. complexes (for example, in etude II from Schumann’s “Symphonic etudes”). This type of polyphonic fabrics later received a variety of applications in music, pursuing color and color. tasks (see, for example, fp. prelude “The Sunken Cathedral” by Debussy), and especially in the polyphony of the 20th century. Harmony melody. votes is not fundamentally new for C. with. reception, but in the 19th century. it is used very often and in different ways. Thus, Wagner in this way achieves a special polyphonic – melodic – completeness in the conclusion. construction of Ch. Parts of the overture to the opera “The Mastersingers of Nuremberg” (measure 71 et seq.). Harmony melody. sequences may be associated with the coexistence of decomp. rhythmic voice options (for example, a combination of quarters and eighths in the introduction “Ocian-sea blue”, a combination of orc. and choir. variants of the upper voice at the beginning of the 4th scene of the opera epic “Sadko” by Rimsky-Korsakov). This feature is in contact with the “combination of similar figures” – a technique that has received brilliant development in the music of con. 19 – beg. 20 cc (e.g. in Op.
Modern The “new polyphony” exists in the struggle between humanistic, passionate, ethically filled art and art, in which the natural intellectuality of polyphony degenerates into rationality, and rationality into rationalism. Polyphony S. s. in the 20th century – a world of contradictory, often mutually exclusive phenomena. A common opinion is that polyphony in the 20th century. became the predominant and stabilized system of muses. thinking is only relatively true. Some masters of the 20th century generally do not feel the need to use polyphonic. means (for example, K. Orff), while others, owning their entire complex, remain basically “homophonic” composers (for example, S. S. Prokofiev); for a number of masters (for example, P. Hindemith), polyphony is the leading one, but not the only one. way of speaking. However, many musical and creative phenomena of the 20th century. arise and develop in line with polyphony. So, for example, an unprecedented drama. expression in the symphonies of Shostakovich, the “release” of the energy of the meter in Stravinsky are closely dependent on polyphonic. the nature of their music. Some means. polyphonic prod. 20th century associated with one of the important areas of the 1st floor. century – neoclassicism with its focus on the objective nature of the muses. content, borrowing the principles of shaping and techniques from polyphonists of a strict style and early baroque (“Ludus tonalis” by Hindemith, a number of works by Stravinsky, including “Symphony of Psalms”). Some techniques that have developed in the field of polyphony are used in a new way in dodecaphony; pl. characteristic of music. language of the 20th century means, such as polytonality, complex forms of polymetry, the so-called. tape voicing are the undoubted derivatives of polyphony.
The most important feature of polyphony of the 20th century. – a new interpretation of dissonance, and modern. counterpoint is usually dissonant counterpoint. The strict style is based on consonant consonances: a dissonance that occurs only in the form of a passing, auxiliary or delayed sound is certainly surrounded by consonances on both sides. The fundamental difference between S. with. lies in the fact that freely taken dissonances are used here; they do not require preparation, although they necessarily find one or another permission, i.e. dissonance implies consonance only on one side – after itself. And, finally, in music pl. composers of the 20th century dissonance is applied in exactly the same way as consonance: it is not bound by the conditions of not only preparation, but also permission, i.e. exists as an independent phenomenon independent of consonance. Dissonance to a greater or lesser extent weakens the harmonic functional connections and prevents the “gathering” of polyphonic. voices into a chord, into a vertical audible as a unity. Chord-functional succession ceases to direct the movement of the theme. This explains the strengthening of the melodic-rhythmic (and tonal, if the music is tonal) independence of the polyphonic. voices, the linear nature of polyphony in the works of many others. modern composers (in which it is easy to see an analogy with the counterpoint of the era of strict writing). For example, the melodic (horizontal, linear) beginning dominates so much in the culminating double canon from the development of the 1st movement of the 5th symphony (number 32) by Shostakovich that the ear does not notice the harmonic, i.e. vertical relationship between voices. Composers of the 20th century use traditional. means polyphonic. language, however, this cannot be regarded as a simple reproduction of well-known techniques: rather, we are talking about modern. intensification of traditional means, as a result of which they acquire a new quality. For example, in the aforementioned Shostakovich symphony, fugato at the beginning of development (numbers 17 and 18), due to the entry of the answer into an increased octave, sounds unusually harsh. One of the most common means of the 20th century. becomes “polyphony of layers”, and the structure of the reservoir can be infinitely complex. So, a layer is sometimes formed from the parallel or opposite movement of many voices (up to the formation of clusters), aleatoric techniques are used (for example, improvisation on the given sounds of a series) and sonoristics (rhythm. canon, for example, for strings playing at the stand), etc. Known from the classic polyphonic music. orc opposition. groups or instruments in many composers of the 20th century are transformed into specific “polyphony of rhythmic timbres” (for example, in the introduction to Stravinsky’s The Rite of Spring) and brought to the logical. end, become “polyphony of sonorous effects” (for example, in the plays of K. Penderecki). In the same way, the use in dodecaphonic music of direct and sideways movement with their inversions comes from the techniques of a strict style, but the systematic use, as well as the exact calculation in the organization of the whole (not always in favor of expressiveness) give them a different quality. In polyphonic. music of the 20th century traditional forms are modified and new forms are born, the features of which are inextricably linked with the nature of thematism and the general sound organization (for example, the theme of the finale of the symphony op. 21 A.
Polyphony 20th century forms a fundamentally new style. a species that goes beyond the concept defined by the term “S. With.”. Clearly defined limits of this “super-free” style of the 2nd floor. 20th century does not have, and there is no generally accepted term for its definition yet (sometimes the definition “new polyphony of the 20th century” is used).
S.’s studying with. for a long time pursued only practical. uch. goals (F. Marpurg, I. Kirnberger, etc.). Specialist. historical and theoretical studies appeared in the 19th century. (X. Riemann). Generalizing works were created in the 20th century. (eg, “Fundamentals of Linear Counterpoint” by E. Kurt), as well as special. aesthetic works on modern polyphony. There is an extensive literature in Russian. lang., dedicated S.’s research with. B. V. Asafiev repeatedly addressed this topic; from works of a generalizing nature, “Principles of Artistic Styles” by S. S. Skrebkov and “The History of Polyphony” by V. V. Protopopov stand out. General issues of the theory of polyphony are also covered in many others. articles on polyphony composers.
2) The second, final (after the strict style (2)) part of the polyphony course. In the music In the universities of the USSR, polyphony is studied at the theoretical compositional level and will be performed by some. f-max; in secondary schools. institutions – only on the historical-theoretical. department (at the performing departments, acquaintance with polyphonic forms is included in the general course for analyzing musical works). The content of the course is determined by the account. programs approved by the Ministry of Culture of the USSR and the Republic. min-you. S.’s course with. involves the implementation of written exercises ch. arr. in the form of a fugue (canons, inventions, passacaglia, variations, various kinds of introductions, plays for fugues, etc.) are also composed. The objectives of the course include the analysis of polyphonic. works belonging to composers of different eras and styles. On the composer’s departments of some uch. institutions practiced the development of polyphonic skills. improvisation (see “Problems in Polyphony” by G. I. Litinsky); on the historical and theoretical f-max music. universities of the USSR established an approach to the study of the phenomena of polyphony in the historical. aspect. For the methodology of teaching in owls. uch. institutions are characterized by the connection of polyphony with related disciplines – solfeggio (see, for example, “Collection of examples from polyphonic literature. For 2, 3 and 4 voice solfeggio” by V. V. Sokolova, M.-L., 1933, “Solfeggio. Examples from polyphonic literature” by A. Agazhanov and D. Blum, Moscow, 1972), music history, etc.
Teaching polyphony has a long-standing pedagogical background. traditions. In the 17-18 centuries. almost every composer was a teacher; it was customary to pass on experience to young musicians trying their hand at composing. S.’s teaching with. considered an important matter by the largest musicians. Uch. leadership left J. P. Sweelinck, J. F. Rameau. J. S. Bach created many of his outstanding works. – inventions, “The Well-Tempered Clavier”, “The Art of the Fugue” – as a practical. instructions in composing and performing polyphonic. prod. Among those who taught S. s. – J. Haydn, S. Frank, J. Bizet, A. Bruckner. Issues of polyphony are given attention in the account. guides P. Hindemith, A. Schoenberg. The development of polyphonic culture in Russian and owls. music was promoted by the activities of composers N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov, A. K. Lyadov, S. I. Taneev, R. M. Glier, A. V. Aleksandrov, N. Ya. Myaskovsky. A number of textbooks have been created that summarize the experience of teaching S. s. in the USSR.
References: Taneev S. I., Introduction, in his book: Movable counterpoint of strict writing, Leipzig, 1909, M., 1959; (Taneev S. I.), Several letters to S. AND. Taneyev on musical and theoretical issues, in the book: S. AND. Taneev, Materials and documents, vol. 1, M., 1952; Taneev S. I., From the scientific and pedagogical heritage, M., 1967; Asafiev B. AT. (Igor Glebov), About polyphonic art, about organ culture and musical modernity. L., 1926; his own, Musical form as a process, (book. 1-2), M.-L., 1930-47, L., 1971; Skrebkov C. S., Polyphonic analysis, M.-L., 1940; his own, Textbook of polyphony, M.-L., 1951, M., 1965; his, Artistic principles of musical styles, M., 1973; Pavlyuchenko S. A., A Guide to the Practical Analysis of the Foundations of Inventive Polyphony, M., 1953; Protopopov V. V., The history of polyphony in its most important phenomena. (Vol. 1) – Russian classical and Soviet music, M., 1962; his, History of polyphony in its most important phenomena. (Vol. 2) – Western European classics of the XVIII-XIX centuries, M., 1965; From the Renaissance to the Twentieth Century. (Sb.), M., 1963; Tyulin Yu. N., Art of counterpoint, M., 1964; Renaissance. Baroque. Classicism. The problem of styles in Western European art of the XV-XVII centuries. (Sb.), M., 1966; Hermit I. Ya., Movable counterpoint and free writing, L., 1967; Kushnarev X. S., O polyphony, M., 1971; Stepanov A., Chugaev A., Polyphony, M., 1972; Polyphony. Sat. Art., comp. and ed. TO. Yuzhak, M., 1975; Rameau J.-Ph., Traitй de l’harmonie…, P., 1722; Marpurg Fr. W., treatise on the fugue, vol. 1-2, В., 1753-54, Lpz., 1806; Kirnberger J. Ph., The art of pure composition in music, vols. 1-2, B.-Kцnigsberg, 1771-79; Albrechtsberger J. G., Thorough instructions for composition, Lpz.., 1790, 1818; Dehn S., Theory of counterpoint, the canon and the fugue, В., 1859, 1883; Judge E F. E., Textbook of simple and double counterpoint, Lpz., 1872 (рус. per. — Richter E. F., Textbook of simple and double counterpoint, M.-Leipzig, 1903); Bussler L., Kontrapunkt und Fuge im freien modernen Tonsatz, V., 1878, 1912 (rus. per. — Bussler L., Free style. Textbook of counterpoint and fugue, M., 1885); Jadasson S., Lehrbuch des einfachen, doppelten, drei- und vierfachen Contrapunkts, Lpz., 1884, under the title: Musikalische Kompositionslehre, Tl 1, Bd 2, 1926; Rout E., Counterpoint, L., 1890; his, Double counterpoint and canon, L., 1891, 1893; his, Fugue, L., 1891 (rus. per. – Prayt E., Fuga, M., 1900); his own, Fugal analysis, L., 1892 (rus. per. – Prout E., Analysis of fugues, M., 1915); Riemann H. Geschichte der Musiktheorie im IX. — XIX. Century, Lpz., 1898, Hildesheim, 1961; Kurth E., Basics of linear counterpoint…, Bern, 1917 (рус. per. – Kurt E., Fundamentals of linear counterpoint, M., 1931); Hindemith P., Unterweisung im Tonsatz, Bd 1-3, Mainz, 1937-70; Krenek E., Studies in counterpoint, N. Y., 1940; Searle H., Twentieth century counterpoint, L., 1954, 1955; Adorno Th.
V. P. Frayonov