ital. finale, from lat. finis – end, conclusion
1) In instr. music – the last part of the cyclic. prod. – sonata-symphony, suite, sometimes also the last section of the variation cycle. With all the variety of specific content and music. forms of the final parts, most of them also have certain common features, for example, fast pace (often the fastest in the cycle), swiftness of movement, folk-genre character, simplicity and generalization of melody and rhythm (compared to the previous parts), rondality of structure (at least in the form of a second plan or in the form of an “inclination” to the rondo, in the terminology of V.V. Protopopov), that is, what belongs to the historically developed muses. techniques that cause a feeling of the end of a major cyclic. works.
In sonata-symphony. cycle, parts of which are stages of a single ideological art. concept, F., being the resulting stage, is endowed with a special, operating within the framework of the entire cycle, the semantic function of completion, which determines the resolution of dramas as the main meaningful task of F.. collisions, and specific. principles of his music. organizations aimed at generalizing the music. thematics and music. development of the entire cycle. This particular playwright function makes sonata-symphony. F. an extremely important link in the cycle. prod. – a link that reveals the depth and organic nature of the entire sonata-symphony. concepts.
The problem of sonata-symphony. F. invariably attracts the attention of musicians. The need for an organic F. for the entire cycle was repeatedly emphasized by A. N. Serov, who highly valued Beethoven’s finales. B. V. Asafiev attributed the problem of F. to the number of the most important in the symphony. art-ve, especially highlighting the dramatic and constructive aspects in it (“firstly … how to focus at the end, in the final stage of the symphony, the organic result of what was said, and, secondly, how to complete and close the run of thoughts and stop the movement in its increasing speed”).
Sonata-symphony. F. in his main playwright. functions was formed in the works of the Viennese classics. However, some of its individual features crystallized in the music of an earlier period. So, already in the sonata cycles of J.S. Bach, a characteristic type of figurative, thematic. and the tonal relationship of F. with the previous parts, especially with the first part of the cycle: following the slow lyric. part, F. restores the effectiveness of the first part (the “center of gravity” of the cycle). Compared with the first part, Bach’s motor F. is distinguished by relatively simple thematics; in F. the tonality of the 1st part is restored (after deviating from it in the middle of the cycle); F. may also contain intonational connections with the 1st part. In Bach’s time (and later, up to early Viennese classicism), sonata-cyclic. F. often experienced the influence of the F. suite cycle – gigi.
In the symphonies of the composers of the Mannheim school, which are historically associated with operatic symphonies that performed the functions of an overture, F. for the first time acquired a special meaning of the special part of the cycle, which has its own typical figurative content (images of festive bustle, etc.) and typical music. thematicism close to the thematicism of the wok. F. opera buffa and gigi. Mannheim F., like the symphonies of that time, are generally close to everyday genres, which affected the simplicity of their content and muses. forms. The concept of the Mannheim symphony. cycle, the essence of which was to generalize the main muses. states-images found in the art of that time, determined both the typification of F. and the nature of its semantic connection with the previous parts, close to the suite.
F. Viennese classics fully reflected the changes that have taken place in the muses. art-ve, – the desire for individualization of sonata-symphony. concepts, to cross-cutting development and dramaturgy. the unity of the cycle, to the intensive development and expansion of the arsenal of muses. funds. In the finals J. Haydn is becoming more and more definite in character, associated with the embodiment of a general, mass movement (to a certain extent already characteristic of the Mannheim F.), the source of which is in the final scenes of the buffa opera. In an effort to concretize the music. images, Haydn resorted to programming (for example, “The Tempest” in F. Symphony No 8), used the theatre. music (F. symphony No 77, which was formerly a picture of a hunt in the 3rd act. his opera “Rewarded Fidelity”), developed Nar. themes – Croatian, Serbian (F. symphonies NoNo 103, 104, 97), sometimes causing the listeners to quite definitively. picture associations (for example, in F. symphony No. 82 – “a bear, which is led and shown around the villages”, which is why the whole symphony received the name “Bear”). Haydn’s finales tend more and more to capture the objective world with a predominance of the folk-genre principle. The most common form of Haydnian F. becomes rondo (also rondo-sonata), ascending to Nar. round dances and expressing the idea of circular motion. Note. a feature of the rondo sonata that first crystallized precisely in the finals of Haydn is the intonation. the commonality of its constituent sections (sometimes the so-called. Mr. monothematic or single-demon rondo sonata; see, for example, symphonies No99, 103). Rondo-shape is also inherent in the double variations used by Haydn in F. (fp. sonata in E minor, Hob. XVI, No 34). The appeal to variational form is a significant fact from the point of view of the history of sonata-symphony. F., t. because this form, according to Asafiev, no less successfully than the rondo, reveals the finality as a change of “reflections” of one idea or feeling (in the preclassical music variational forms in F. cycles were characteristic of G. F. Handel; cm. Concerto grosso op. 6 No 5). Haydn’s use in F. fugue (quartet or. 20 No 2, 5, 6, op. 50 No 4), containing elements of rondality (a striking example is the fugue from the quartet op. 20 No 5) and variation, revives the tradition of F. old sonatas da chiesa. Certain The originality of Haydn’s final forms is given by the developmental method of unfolding the muses. material, original compositions. finds (e.g. 3 reprises in the fugue of the quartet op. 20 No 5, the “farewell” Adagio in Symphony No 45, where the instruments of the orchestra fall silent in turn), will express. the use of polyphony, ch. arr., as a means of creating a typical final “vanity”, a cheerful revival (Symphony No. 103), sometimes evoking the impression of an everyday scene (something like a “street squabble” or “fierce dispute” in the development of F. Symphony No99). T. o., in the work of Haydn F. with its specific thematic development methods. material rises to the level of the sonata allegro of the 1st movement, creating a sonata-symphony. composition balance. The pictorial-thematic problem. The unity of the cycle is decided by Haydn mainly in the tradition of his predecessors. A new word in this area belongs to V. A. Mozart. Mozart F. discover a semantic unity of sonatas and symphonies, rare for their time. concepts, figurative content of the cycle – excitedly lyrical, for example. in g-moll symphony (No 41), mournful in d-moll quartet (K.-V. 421), heroic in the symphony “Jupiter”. The themes of Mozart’s finales generalize and synthesize the intonations of the previous movements. The peculiarity of Mozart’s technique of intonation. generalization is that in F. separate melodic pieces scattered over the previous parts are collected. singing, intonations, accentuating certain steps of the mode, rhythmic. and harmonic. turns, which are not only in the initial, easily recognizable sections of themes, but also in their continuations, not only in the main melodic. voices, but also in accompanying ones – in a word, that complex is thematic. elements, to-ry, passing from part to part, determines the characteristic intonation. the appearance of this work, the unity of its “sound atmosphere” (as defined by V. AT.
In the late sonata-symphony. cycles of Mozart F. are as unique as the interpretations of the general concepts of cycles, to which they belong (in connection with the symphonies in g-moll and C-dur, for example, T. N. Livanova notices that they are more individual in their plans than all other symphonies of the 18th century). The idea of figurative development, which determined the novelty of the Mozartian concept of the cycle, was clearly reflected in the structure of F. They will be noted. a feature is the attraction to sonata, which is reflected both in the use of the actual sonata form (symphony in g-moll), the rondo-sonata (fp. concerto A-dur, K.-V. 488), and in the peculiar “sonata mood” in the forms of the non-sonata type, eg. in rondo (flute quartet, K.-V. 285). In F. production, relating to the late period of creativity, a large place is occupied by development sections, and the most important means of musical-thematic. development becomes polyphony, used by Mozart with extraordinary virtuosity (string quintet in g-moll, K.-V. 516, symphony in g-moll, quartet No. 21). Although the fugue is independent. the form is not typical for Mozart’s finales (quartet F-dur, K.-V. 168), their specific. a feature is the inclusion of the fugue (as a rule, in a dispersed form) in the composition of homophonic forms – sonata, rondo sonata (string quintets D-dur, K.-V. 593, Es-dur, K.-V. 164) up to the formation music a form synthesizing the features of a fugue and a sonata (string quartet G-dur No1, K.-V. 387), a form that historically turned out to be very promising (F. fp. Schumann quartet Es-dur op. 47, Reger’s string quartet G-dur op.54 No 1). An important feature of such a synthetic forms in Op. Mozart – the union of dispersed polyphonic. episodes by a single line of development, striving for a culmination (“large polyphonic form”, the term of V. V. Protopopov). The apex example of this kind is the F. symphony “Jupiter”, in which the sonata form (forming its own plan of interaction between sections) includes a complex system of internal connections between dispersed polyphonic. episodes arising as the development of DOS. sonata form themes. Each of the thematic lines (the 1st and 2nd themes of the main part, connecting and secondary) gets its polyphonic. development-carried out by means of imitation-canonical. polyphony. The systematic synthesis of thematism by means of contrasting polyphony culminates in the coda, where the entire main thematic is combined in a five-dark fugato. material and generalized polyphonic methods. development (a combination of imitation and contrast-thematic polyphony).
In the work of Beethoven, playwright. the role of F. increased immeasurably; It is with his music that in musicology the awareness of the importance of F. for sonata-symphony. cycle as a “crown”, goal, result (A. N. Serov), the role of F. in the creative process of creating a cycle (N. L. Fishman, as a result of studying the sketches of the 3rd symphony, came to the conclusion that “much in the first parts of the Eroica owes its origin to its finale”), as well as the need for theoretical. development of the principles of a holistic symphony. compositions. In mature Op. Beethoven F. gradually becomes the “center of gravity” of the cycle, its peak, to which all previous development is directed, in some cases it is connected with the previous part (according to the principle of attacca), forming together with it in the 2nd half of the cycle a contrast-composite form. The tendency to enlarge the contrast leads to the restructuring of the used in F. forms, to-rye become thematically and structurally more monolithic. So, for example, the sonata form of Beethoven’s finales became characterized by fluidity, the erasure of the cadence boundaries between the main and side parts with their intonation. closeness (feat. sonata No. 23 “Appassionata”), in the final rondo the principles of the old one-dark structure with developing interludes were revived (fp. Sonata No. 22), in the variations there was a predominance of the continuous type, structurally free variation appeared, non-variational principles of development penetrated into them – developmental, fugue (3rd symphony), in the rondo sonatas the predominance of forms with development became noticeable, the tendency towards the fusion of sections ( 6th symphony). In the late works of Beethoven, one of the characteristic forms of F. becomes a fugue (cello sonata op. 102 No 2). Intonac. preparing F. in production Beethoven is carried out both with the help of melodic-harmonic. connections, and thematic reminiscences (fp. sonata No 13), monothematism (5th symphony). Of great importance are tonal-phonic connections (the principle of “tonal resonance”, the term of V. AT. Protopopov). organic F. in a cycle, its form in means. least due to the accumulation in the previous parts of the elements of variation, rondo-likeness, purposeful use of polyphonic. techniques that determine the uniqueness of a particular structure of a philosophy, that is, e. the presence in it of certain forms of the 2nd plan, one or another synthesis of various form-building principles, and in some cases – and the choice of the main. forms (variations in the 3rd and 9th symphonies). It is noteworthy that the symphony of the scale of development is manifested in Beethoven not only in F. symphonies, but also in F. “chamber” cycles – quartets, sonatas (for example, F. fp. sonatas No 21 – a grandiose rondo with development and coda, F. fp. sonatas No. 29 – a double fugue with the most intense thematic. development – the “queen of fugues”, in the words of F. Buzoni). One of the highest achievements of Beethoven – F. 9th symphony. The forms and means of muses presented here in a concentrated form. embodiments of majestic paintings. jubilation – the undulation of the dynamics of formation, creating an increase in a single feeling, its ascent to the apotheosis – a double fugato, expressing ch. thought in conjunction (with genre transformation) 2 main themes – “themes of joy” and “Hug, millions”; variation, ascending to couplet and associated with the implementation of hymn song, unfolding extremely freely, enriched by the principles of fugue, rondo-like, complex three-part form; the introduction of the choir, which enriched the symphony. form by the laws of oratorio composition; special dramaturgy. the concept of F., containing not only a statement of the victory of the heroic. attitudes (as usual), but also the stage of dramatic searches that precedes it and the acquisition of a “foothold” – the main muses. Topics; perfection of the system of compositions. generalizations of F., who tightly connected the intonational, harmonic, variation, polyphonic, stretching towards him through the entire symphony. threads – all this determined the significance of the impact of F. 9th symphony to later music and was developed by composers of the next generations. The most direct. the influence of P. 9th symphony – in the symphonies of G. Berlioz, F. List, A. Bruckner, G. Mahler, S.
In the post-Beethoven art, there is a tendency towards the synthesis of music with literature, theater, philosophy, towards the characteristic character of the muses. images, to the individualization of concepts determined a great variety of specific content and structure of F. In combining F. with the previous parts, along with thematic. reminiscences, the principles of Liszt’s monothematism and operatic leitmotivity began to play a leading role. In the program music of the Romantic composers, musical instruments of a theatrical nature appeared, similar to the opera stage, which also allowed stage performances. incarnation (“Romeo and Julia” by Berlioz), a type of “demonic” F.-grotesque developed (“Faust” is a symphony by Liszt). The development of the psychological the beginning brought to life a unique F. – “afterword” in FP. sonata b-moll Chopin, tragic. F. Adagio lamentoso in Tchaikovsky’s 6th symphony. The forms of such individualized phrasings are, as a rule, very untraditional (in Tchaikovsky’s 6th symphony, for example, a simple three-movement with a coda that introduces an element of sonata); the structure of software F. is sometimes entirely subordinate to lit. plot, forming free forms on a large scale (Manfred by Tchaikovsky). Interpretation of F. as semantic and intonational. the center of the cycle, to which both the general climax and the resolution of dramas are drawn. conflict, characteristic of the symphonies of G. Mahler, called “symphonies of the finals” (P. Becker). The structure of Mahler’s F., reflecting the “colossal scale of formation” (in the words of Mahler himself) of the entire cycle, is determined by the internally organized musical-intonation “plot” that embodies the symphony. concept of Mahler, and often develops into grandiose variant-strophic. forms.
The meaning of the key part of the cycle is F. in op. D. D. Shostakovich. Very diverse in content (for example, the affirmation of the will to fight in the F. 1st symphony, the funeral march in the F. 4th, the affirmation of an optimistic worldview in the F. 5th), in relation to the previous parts (in some cases F., entering without interruption, as in the 11th symphony, seems to follow from the entire previous course of events, in others it appears emphatically apart, as in the 6th symphony), revealing a rare breadth of the circle of used muses. means (monothematism – both of Beethoven’s (5th symphony) and Liszt’s type (1st symphony), the method of thematic reminiscence – including in its “Russian variety”, as it was used in P. I. Tchaikovsky, S. I. Taneyev, A. N. Scriabin (coda-apotheosis on the transformed main theme of the 1st movement in F. 7th symphony), a characteristic intonation sprouting, synthesizing the principles of J. S. Bach and Mahler, in forms, methods of both classical composition (F. of the 6th symphony) and program plot (F., for example, of the 4th symphony, “non-programmed”), Shostakovich’s finales are an expression of Ch. essay ideas.
2) In opera music, a large ensemble stage that includes both the entire opera and its individual acts. Opera F. as a rapidly developing music. an ensemble that reflects all the vicissitudes of dramas. actions, developed in the 18th century. in ital. opera buffa; her F. were nicknamed “balls”, because they concentrated the main content of comedic intrigue. In such F., the tension continuously increased due to the gradual appearance on the stage of ever new characters, complicating the intrigue, and came either to general stormy denunciation and indignation (in F. 1st act – the culmination of the entire opera, traditionally two-act), or to denouement (in the last F.). Accordingly, dram. each new phase of F.’s plan was met by new tempos, tonality, and partly thematic. material; Among the means of unification of F. are tonal closure and the rondo-like structure. An early example of dynamic ensemble F. – in the opera “The Governor” by N. Logroshino (1747); further development of operatic phrasing occurs with N. Piccinni (The Good Daughter, 1760), Paisiello (The Miller’s Woman, 1788), and D. Cimarosa (The Secret Marriage, 1792). Classic F.’s perfection acquires in Mozart’s operas, muses. development to-rykh, flexibly following the drama. action, at the same time takes the form of complete muses proper. structures. The most complex and “symphonic” in their own muses. development culminating. F. operas by Mozart – 2nd d. “Marriage of Figaro” and 1st d. “Don Giovanni”.
A new type of operatic phrasing was created by M. I. Glinka in the epilogue of Ivan Susanin; it is a monumental folk scene, in the composition of which the variational principle is predominant; the methods of symphonic development are combined in it with the characteristic methods of presentation and intonational features of the Russian. nar. songs.
References: Serov A. N., Commentary on the article “A note by a modern famous thinker (from non-musicians) on Beethoven’s ninth symphony”, “Era”, 1864, No 7, reprinted. in the appendix to art. T. N. Livanova “Beethoven and Russian musical criticism of the XIX century”, in the book: Beethoven, Sat. st., issue. 2, M., 1972; his own, Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony, its structure and meaning, “Modern Chronicle”, 1868, May 12, No 16, the same, in the book: A. N. Serov, Selected Articles, vol. 1, M.-L. , 1950; Asafiev B. V., Musical form as a process, book. 1, M., 1930, (books 1-2), L., 1971; his own, Symphony, in the book: Essays on Soviet musical creativity, vol. 1, M.-L., 1947; Livanova T., History of Western European music until 1789, M.-L., 1940; her own, Western European music of the XVII-XVIII centuries in a number of arts, M., 1977; Beethoven’s book of sketches for 1802-1803, research and interpretation by N. L. Fishman, M., 1962; Protopopov Vl., Testament of Beethoven, “SM”, 1963, No 7; his, History of polyphony in its most important phenomena, (issue 2), M., 1965; his own, Beethoven’s Principles of Musical Form, M., 1970; his, On the sonata-cyclic form in the works of Chopin, in Sat: Questions of musical form, vol. 2, M., 1972; his, Rondo Form in Mozart’s Instrumental Works, M., 1978; his, Sketches from the history of instrumental forms of the 1979th – early 1975th centuries, M., 130; Barsova I., Symphonies of Gustav Mahler, M., 3; Tsakher I., The problem of the finale in B-dur quartet op. 1975 Beethoven, in Sat: Problems of Musical Science, vol. 1976, M., XNUMX; Sabinina M., Shostakovich-symphonist, M., XNUMX.
T. N. Dubrovskaya