Dynamics (from the Greek dynamixos – having power, from dunamis – strength) in music – a set of phenomena associated with decomp. degrees of loudness of sound, as well as the doctrine of these phenomena. The term “D.”, known since ancient times. philosophy, borrowed from the doctrine of mechanics; apparently, he was first introduced to the muses. theory and practice of Swiss. music teacher X. G. Negeli (1810). D. is based on the use of sounds decomp. the degree of loudness, their contrasting opposition or gradual change. Main types of dynamic designations: forte (abbreviated f) – loudly, strongly; piano (p) – quietly, weakly; mezzo forte (mf) – moderately loud; mezzo piano (mp) – moderately quiet; fortissimo (ff) – very loud pianissimo (pp) – very quiet forte-fortissimo (fff) – extremely loud; piano-pianissimo (ppr) – extremely quiet. All these degrees of sound loudness are relative, not absolute, the definition of which belongs to the field of acoustics; the absolute value of each of them depends on many factors – dynamic. capabilities of an instrument (voice) or an ensemble of instruments (voices), acoustic. features of the room, performance interpretation of the work, etc. Gradual increase in sound – crescendo (graphic image
); gradual weakening – diminuendo or decrescendo (
). A sharp, sudden change in dynamic hue is denoted by the term subito. Piano subito – sudden change from loud to quiet, forte subito – quiet to loud. To dynamic shades include diff. types of accents (see Accent) associated with the allocation of otd. sounds and consonances, which also affect the metric.
D. is the most important means of music. expressions. Like chiaroscuro in painting, D. is able to produce psychological. and emotion. effects of tremendous power, evoke figurative and spaces. associations. Forte can create the impression of something bright, joyful, major, piano – minor, sad, fortissimo – majestic, powerful, grandiose, and brought to the utmost power – overwhelming, frightening. On the contrary, pianissimo is associated with tenderness, often mystery. Changes in the rise and fall of sonority create the effect of “approaching” and “removing”. Some music. prod. designed for a specific dynamic impact: chor. the play “Echo” by O. Lasso is built on the opposition of loud and quiet sound, “Bolero” by M. Ravel – on a gradual increase in sound, leading to a conclusion. section to a grand climax.
The use of dynamic Shades are determined int. essence and character of music, its style, features of the structure of muses. works. In diff. aesthetic era. D.’s criteria, the requirements for its nature and methods of application have changed. One of the original sources of D. echo is a sharp, direct contrast between loud and soft sounds. Until about ser. 18 in. music was dominated by D. forte and piano. The highest development of this dynamic. principle received in the Baroque era with its art of “well-organized contrast”, gravitating towards the monument. polyphonic. wok shapes. and instr. music, to the bright effects of chiaroscuro. For the music of the Baroque era, the contrasting D. and in its more subtle manifestations – D. registers. This type of D. answered and dominating muses. the instruments of the era, in particular such instruments as the organ, the harpsichord (about the last F. Couperin wrote that on it “it is impossible to increase or decrease the power of sounds”, 1713), and the monumental-decorative style is many-sided. wok-instr. music of the Venetian school, with its chiefs. the principle of coro spezzato – the opposition of decomp. poison. groups and games 2 bodies. The most means. instr. music of this era – pre-classical. concerto grosso – based on a sharp, direct. opposing forte and piano – playing concerto and concertino, generally separate, often very different not only in timbre, but also in the volume of the sound of groups of instruments. At the same time in the field of solo wok. performances already in the early baroque period, smooth, gradual changes in the volume of sound were cultivated. In the field of instr. music to the transition to such a D. contributed to a radical revolution in music. toolkit, accomplished in con. 17 – beg. 18th century, the approval of the violin, and later the hammer-type piano. as leading solo instruments with a variety of dynamics. opportunities, the development of a melodious, extended, flexible, psychologically more capacious instr. melodics, harmonic enrichment. funds. The violin and instruments of the violin family formed the basis of the emerging classic. (small) symph. orchestra. Separate signs of crescendo and diminuendo are found among some composers starting from the 17th century: D. Mazzocchi (1640), J. F. Ramo (30s 18th century). There is an indication of crescendo il forte in the opera “Artaxerxes” by N. Yommelli (1749). F. Geminiani was the first instr. virtuoso, who used in 1739, when reissuing his sonatas for violin and bass, op. 1 (1705), special dynamic. signs for increasing the strength of the sound (/) and for decreasing it (); he explained: “the sound should begin quietly and then increase evenly to half the duration (note), after which it gradually subsides towards the end.” This performance indication, referring to a crescendo on one note, must be distinguished from a transitional crescendo within the great muses. constructions, the application of which was initiated by representatives of the Mannheim school. The durations they entered. dynamic rises and falls, more clear dynamics. shades were not only new performing techniques, but also organic. features of the style of their music. Mannheimers installed a new dynamic. principle – forte y was achieved not by simply increasing the number of voices (a technique widely used before), but by amplifying the sound of the entire orc. ensemble. They found that the piano performs better the more disciplined musicians are involved in the performance. Thus, the orchestra was freed from static and became capable of a variety of dynamic performances. “modulations”. Transitional crescendo, linking forte and piano together into a single dynamic. whole, meant a new principle in music, blowing up the old muses. forms based on contrast D. and D. registers. Classic statement. sonata form (sonata allegro), the introduction of new thematic principles. development led to the use of more detailed, subtle dynamics. shades, based already on “contrasts within the narrowest thematic framework. education” (X. Riemann). The claim of “well organized contrast” gave way to the claim of “gradual transition”. These two main dynamic principles found their organic. combination in the music of L. Beethoven with its powerful dynamic contrasts (a favorite technique of subito piano – the rise in sound is suddenly interrupted, giving way to piano) and at the same time gradual transitions from one dynamic. shade to another. Later they were developed by romantic composers, especially G. Berlioz. For orc. the works of the latter are characterized by a combination of various dynamics. effects with defined. instrument timbres, which allows us to talk about a kind of “dynamic. paints” (a technique later widely developed by the Impressionists). Later, polydynamics was also developed – a discrepancy in the ensemble game of dynamic. shades at otd. instruments or orchestra. groups, creating the effect of fine dynamic. polyphony (typical of G. Mahler). D. plays a huge role in the performing arts. The logic of the ratio of music. sonority is one of the main conditions of art. execution. Its violation can distort the content of the music. Being inextricably linked with agogics, articulation and phrasing, D. largely determined by the individual. perform. style, character of interpretation, aesthetic. orientation performer. schools. Some are characterized by the principles of undulating D., fractional dynamic. shades, for others, the principles of terrace-like D., the construction of a whole from dynamic “planes” separated from each other by distinct edges, etc.
In various avant-garde movements of the 20th century. use of dynamic resources are undergoing major changes. In atonal music, breaking with harmony and func. relations, a close connection of D. with the logic of harmonic. development is lost. Avant-garde artists also modify the dynamic effect. incompatibility, when, for example, on a sustained chord, each instrument changes its sound strength differently (K. Stockhausen, Zeitmasse). In polyserial music dynamic. shades are completely subordinated to the series, each sound is associated with a certain degree of loudness.
References: Mostras K. G., Dynamics in violin art, M., 1956; Kogan G. M., The work of a pianist, M., 1963, 1969, p. 161-64; Pazovsky A. M., Notes of a conductor, M., 1966, p. 287-310, M., 1968.
I. M. Yampolsky