German Stufe, Tonstufe, Klangstufe; English degree; French degre; ital. grado; other Russian degree
The location of the tone (sound) as a link in the scale system (gamma, tuning, mode, tonality), as well as such a tone itself.
The concept of “S.” is associated with the idea of scale as a “ladder” (Italian scala, German Leiter, Tonleiter), movement along which is perceived as a step over, i.e., an abrupt transition from one quality (from one element) to another (for example, c – d, d – e, e – f). S.’s shifts are one of the manifestations of movement, development, by means of a pitch structure. Set S. belonging to k.-l. system, suggests the orderliness of transitions from one S. to another; in this there is a certain similarity between the concepts of S. and the tonal function. In harmonic. tonality in accordance with the difference between the two DOS. types of sound-altitude organization – one-headed. and polygon. – under the term “S.” it means not only a separate sound of the scale, but also built on it as on the main. chord tone (they say, for example, about voicing in the sequence of steps: V – VI). To designate S. of that and other types, G. Schenker to traditional. entries in Roman numerals added Arabic:
S. chord covers several. S.-sounds (for example, the V9 chord includes 5, 7, 2, 4, 6, and the transition from one “sound step” to another within one “chord access” is not perceived as a change in its general function, since it is common to all its constituent “sound steps”). In harmonic. tonality S. – the local center (micromode; for example, on V C. 1 gravitates to 7 in spite of the main gravity), subordinate to the general (S. as a sublad). One of the most common methods of denoting chords is associated with the concept of “S.-chord”, the essence of which is the indication of the number of harmony in the scale series (functional notation, in contrast to step notation, determines the meaning of the chord in the logic of the harmonic process). In European music of the 17th-19th centuries, based on a 12-step acoustic. system, dominated diatonic. at its core (see Diatonic), the modes are major and minor, which, however, allowed chromatism. The 12 “sound steps” possible within these modes were functionally divided into 7 main ones (in C-dur they correspond to the white keys of the php.) and 5 derivatives (altered; correspond to the black keys); such an alter. chromaticity is a phenomenon secondary to diatonic. basis (F. Chopin, Etude a-moll op. 25 No 11), and according to the main principle of structure, the frets should be considered as 7-step. In the music of the 20th century along with the 7-step, the 12-step is also systematically used (natural chromaticism and its other types, for example, in A. Webern’s Bagatelles, op. 9, piano trio by E. V. Denisov). In addition to the 7- and 12-step systems, there are others with a smaller amount of C. (for example, pentatonic) and with a larger one (microchromatic from 24, 36 C .; here the 12-step series can function as the main one).
It is necessary to distinguish between the concepts: S. and the specific meaning of the tone (chord). So, in chromatic system C (dur) it is possible to use the sounds ces-heses-as and, on the other hand, eis-fis-gis-ais, however, these specific tone values do not lead to an excess of the actual number of “sound steps” of the 12-tone chromatic. gamma.
References: Avraamov A., On the triad of the 2nd degree of major, “Music”, 1915, No 205, 213; Glinsky M., Chromatic signs in the music of the future, “RMG”, 1915, No 49; Gorkovenko A., The concept of a step and the problem of the system, “SM”, 1969, No 8; Albersheim G., Die Tonstufe, “Mf”, 1963, Jahrg. 16, H. 2. See also lit. at Art. Harmony, Mode, Key, Sound system, Diatonic, Chromatic, Microchromatic, Pentatonic, Scale, Temperament.
Yu. N. Kholopov